Canadian Hemlock: Planting And Care, Landscape Design, Varieties

The crabapple plant began to be cultivated in the 18th century. This genus includes about 20 species, which are represented by trees. A characteristic feature of the species is that even trees of the same species can differ not only in height but also in the shape of the crown.

The average height of this plant varies from 28 to 30 meters. However, there are some which are up to 75 meters high.

In the wild it is found in East Asia and North America. In European countries this tree is very often used for park landscape gardening.

With all species the most widespread in culture is the Canadian slouch (Tsuga canadensis). This species is native to eastern Canada and North America. Such a tree grows and develops perfectly well in conditions of middle latitudes.

The fact is that its varieties are very frost-resistant.

Peculiarities of Canadian woodchip

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

Canadian woodchip in natural conditions can reach more than 20 m in height and up to 8 m in width.  Its loose, showy crown is conical in shape. Often such a plant forms multistage forms. Its shoots are graceful and slender.

Lateral and apical shoots have drooping tops. Branches underneath can be so strong and thick that it may look like a multi-branched tree.

Branches form fusiform cones, which grow to a length of approximately 25mm. The cones mature during the first year, and do not take off until the second year. The thickened leaf plates can be painted in various shades from greenish-yellow to glossy green.

There are 2 bands of white on the underside of the leaves, which include several stomatal lines.

This crop is unpretentious and undemanding in care. It should be planted and grown in almost the same way as other conifers. This species has a large number of ornamental varieties differing from each other by their crown shape, type of growth, leaf color and height.

Putting trees into open ground

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

Selecting a location

Canadian swede trees take root very poorly after replanting.

This is why experienced gardeners advise you to choose the most suitable site for it immediately so that you do not have to move the bush to another location later.

This conifer grows best in soil rich in organic matter that is well water permeable, but is evenly moist. Its pH can be neutral or acidic. A suitable place should be well protected from the scorching rays of the midday sun and strong gusts of wind. However, if growing in a cool-climate region, brushwood will not suffer from direct sunlight during the day.

Seeding details

The planting hole should be deep enough to accommodate the roots of the young plants taken up with the root ball. When planting the plant, make sure that the root neck is slightly above ground level.

When digging the hole, the top layer of soil should be discarded separately. This soil is mixed with a small amount of compost, peat and sand to increase its drainability. A layer of 15 cm of claydite or coarse sand should be placed at the bottom of the prepared hole.

The planted seedlings should be watered with plenty of water. To prevent excessive moisture evaporation, the soil surface near the bush should be covered with a layer of mulch (finely broken bark or peat). This will also help to prevent the root system from overheating.

No fertilising of the root zone is required as the tree receives enough nutrients from the mulch layer and its deciduous needles.

Canadian woodruff from OBI, planting on a rockery

Maintenance for Canadian woodruff

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties


Canadian woodruff reacts very badly to drought and must therefore be watered systematically during long dry spells.

Particular attention should be paid to watering a young plant. If the shrub does not receive enough water, stress may result: The needles turn yellow and drooping branches may also occur.

Until the shrub grows up and gains strength, water it at least once every 7 days during the dry season. At least once every 30 days during the hot summer months, it is recommended to use a hose to sprinkle it. Loosen the soil surface in the root zone only if it has become very dense.

Loosen the soil to a maximum depth of 10 cm.


A mature driftwood is fairly frost-resistant. However, in seedlings, the tops of young stems can freeze during the winter. To avoid this, young bushes are covered with agrovolok or lapnik in deep autumn. It is also recommended to cover the surface of the planting circle with a layer of mulch (lapnik or compost), which will reliably protect the root system from excessive evaporation and severe frost in case of low snowfall during winter.


Fertilization of sloe is required only if necessary. It should be done in the spring before the young shoots appear. Mineral complex fertilizer for conifers is used for that.

Transplantation methods

Growing from seeds

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

You can buy Canadian hemp seed material at the nursery. You can also gather it with your own hands if you wish.

To do that in autumn take the cones from a mature plant and place them in a well-lit or warm place where they will open up after a while. Before sowing the seeds, they need to be stratified. To do this, put them on the refrigerator shelf for 2-2.5 months.

Seed the prepared seeds into a moistened soil mixture consisting of one part peat and the same amount of universal soil.

They should be sunk into the substrate to a depth of 0.3 to 0.4 cm. Put the seedlings in a well-lit place (the light should be diffused) and make sure the potting soil is always slightly moist.

Seeding seedlings into the open soil is carried out in August.

This procedure can be postponed until the following spring. The plantlets planted during the first three years are systematically watered and covered for the winter.


Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

Germinating cuttings is done in the last weeks of summer. Current year shoots, which must be half-ripe, are used. The bark should be green at the top and brown near the cuttings.

For quick rooting, all needles should be removed from the underside and treated with a growth-stimulating powder that is suitable for trees and woody shrubs.

View the cuttings, it should definitely be covered with a layer of powder. It can then be planted in a container filled with soil mixture. Take a pot of suitable size and make a good layer of drainage at the bottom. Then fill it with substrate consisting of soil and sand (or perlite).

Water the planted cuttings liberally and place them together with the pot in a transparent bag. Water the cuttings as the top layer of soil mixture dries out. Rooted cuttings are planted to a permanent location in the last weeks of spring.

Diseases and Pests

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties


Most often the Canada sloe is affected by fungal diseases. This can occur due to high humidity with poor ventilation, and also due to stagnant fluid in the roots of the plant.

When it is infested, the leaves turn yellow and die off, and the tips of the young shoots dry out. Also susceptible to cereal twigs rust. It causes a rusty growth on the surface of needles and cones which contains fungal spores.

To save diseased specimens, spray them several times with a fungicide solution. If possible, cut off all affected parts and destroy them.


The following pests can settle on the hemlock: aphids, caterpillars, spider mites and scales.

The Canadian hemlock. Conifers of the Moscow area, continuation.

Canadian hemp in landscape design

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

Canadian hemp is a shade loving crop, so it may be grown in shade. It will look great next to other shade-loving plants, e.

g. it can be planted near Rogersia, ferns, hostas, gaulteria, etc.

Because the plant has a spectacular openwork crown and drooping branches that touch the soil surface, it can be grown as a solo crop as well as in combination with spectacular flowering plants.

Dwarf groundcover varieties are suitable for growing in alpine rockeries or rotary gardens. Since the tree likes high humidity, it can be planted near an artificial pond.

Do note, however, that waterlogged areas are not suitable for its cultivation.

Since it is a slow growing culture, it fits perfectly into any garden. The fact is that it does not need to be trimmed regularly and ages very slowly.

Canadian woodchip varieties with photos


Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

Cultivated this variety in 1866. The low growing tree is decorated with long dark green needles with snow-white tips.

Specialists recommend it for shady spots in the garden.

Jeddeloh (Jeddeloh)

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

The shrub's crown shape is hemispherical and it is slow growing. It is only about 50cm tall, making it one of the shortest growing varieties of Canada awn. Because the stems grow radially, there is a characteristic depression in the middle of the shrub. The soft needles are of a dark green hue.


Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

This beautiful tree has weeping stems hanging so low that they reach the soil surface.

Cole's Prostrate

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

This spectacular groundcover bush grows low, its cascading lush branches forming a pillow-shaped crown. The new needles, grown in the springtime, have a lettuce color, while the mature leaves have a dark green hue.


Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

The large tree grows a large number of drooping stems. It is about 3 meters tall and reaches 6 meters across.


Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

This rare variety has golden-colored needles and has a graceful pyramid-shaped crown. The tree reaches a height of about 200 cm. The needles turn golden in October and stay that way until mid spring (until April). In order to have an intense color of needles the tree should be planted in a well-lit area.

Moon Frost

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

The variety is a compact dwarf tree.

Its characteristic feature is the snow-white tips of the new shoots which appear in the springtime. In summer, however, all the needles turn green.

Gentsch White

Canadian hemlock: planting and care, landscape design, varieties

This dwarf variegated shrub can reach a height of about 100 cm. It has a cushion-shaped crown shape. The tops of the graceful, slender shoots are white and creamy.

In autumn and winter their color becomes richer, thus enhancing the contrast between the mature dark-green needles. To maintain the high decorative value of the shrub, experts advise, prune it every year. Thanks to this, the young shoots will grow more intensively.

Coniferous plants for the garden Pine, sloe. Garden World website



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