Cabbage: Cultivation And Care In The Open Field, Pests And Diseases

The cabbage (Brassica) is a member of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family, which also includes turnips, radish, rutabaga, cabbage, radish, turnips, and mustard. This genus includes about 50 species. In natural conditions, they occur in the Mediterranean, Central Europe, Central and Eastern Asia. In the Americas, only those species that have been introduced from Europe can be found. People began to cultivate cabbage about 4 thousand years ago, did it the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Romans.

In the territory of modern Russia, this culture has got thanks to merchants, and it was brought in the 13th century from Western Europe during the heyday of Kievan Rus. By the 18th century it had become an essential part of Russian life, at which time the tradition arose of collectively harvesting cabbage for the winter, cut and salted after the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (September 27). At the same time for 14 days there were merry folk games, called cabbage feasts. In the 19th century the famous Russian vegetable scientist Rytov already described 22 varieties of cabbage.

Peculiarities of cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is an agricultural crop.

This biennial has a foliated tall stem and bare leafy plates that are green-blue or gray-green in color. The lower large, fleshy leaves have petioles and are lyrically pinnately dissected, adhering to one another to form a rosette (a sprout around the stem). The upper sessile leaflets are oblong in shape. The multi-flowered, brush-like inflorescence is made up of large flowers. The dark brown seeds are large and globular in shape and reach about 0.

2 cm in length.

The plant contains mineral salts of calcium, potassium, sulfur and phosphorus, cellulose, enzymes, phytoncides, fats, vitamins A, B1, B6, K, C, P, U, etc. Scientists believe that the homeland of this crop is the Colchis Depression, where even today in nature can be found many similar plants, which locals call "kegera". The species cabbage includes red and white cabbage as well as Savoy cabbage, Portuguese cabbage, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels cabbage, kohlrabi, Peking cabbage and curly kale.

Growing cabbage in the open field

Growing cabbage from seed

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

Sowing

The quality of the cabbage yield is strongly influenced by the seeds used.

So, when choosing your seeds, you should decide whether you want an early harvest for cooking different dishes and salads or whether you can use later varieties with large, very dense cabbage heads that are ideal for pickling and storing for a long time. Determine what you grow cabbage for is extremely important, as this affects the choice of cabbage variety, as well as the timing of sowing. The white cabbage is particularly popular with gardeners, which is used to make delicious borscht and not only. This cabbage variety is subdivided into early maturing - their cabbage heads can be eaten only in summer, medium maturing - they are used for cooking in summer, and also pickled for winter, and late maturing - they are perfect for long-term storage.

Sow early maturing varieties from the beginning of March to the twentieth of March, sow mid-maturing varieties from April 25, sow late maturing seeds from the first days of April to the third decade of the month.

As a rule, it takes about 45-50 days from the day of sowing to transplanting the seedlings into open soil.

Before sowing the seeds, a suitable substrate should be prepared. Experienced gardeners advise to stockpile all the necessary substrate ingredients in the autumn, because in winter it will be extremely difficult to get them. You need to combine the turf and humus in a ratio of 1:1, then for each kilogram of the resulting soil mixture is added 1 tbsp. wood ash.

All should be well mixed. Ash in this case will act as an antiseptic agent, as well as a source of micro- and macroelements, and it will not allow the development of blackleg on the cabbage sprouts. Soil mixture can have a different composition, so it can be made on the basis of peat, the main thing to remember that it must be nutritious and well aired. For seedlings, it is not allowed to take the garden soil in which representatives of the cabbage family have grown before, since there may be pathogens in it that can affect seedlings.

Cabbage seeds need pre-sowing preparation.

For this purpose, they are immersed for one third of an hour in hot (about 50 degrees) water, then they are kept in very cold water for five minutes. This will increase the resistance of seeds to fungal diseases. After that, the seed is kept for several hours in a solution of a growth-promoting agent, for example, Epin, Humate, Silk, etc. But note that there are some varieties whose seeds should not be soaked, so be sure to study the instructions on the package before sowing. Sowing is done in a well-watered substrate, with no more watering until the seedlings appear.

At the time of sowing the seeds deepened into the substrate at 10 mm, and then the container top should be covered with a paper sheet or film, which prevents rapid evaporation of moisture from the surface of the substrate. The container with the seeds should be put in a relatively warm place (about 20 degrees).

Growing cabbage seedlings

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

The first seedlings should appear already 4-5 days after sowing. When this happens, the cover should be removed from the container, and it should be taken to a cooler place (about 6-10 degrees), there the cabbage will remain until it has formed one real leaf plate. If there is such a possibility, the seedlings can be moved to a glazed loggia, with the first leaf growing as a rule in 7 days.

When that happens, seedlings should provide the following temperature regime: on a cloudy day the air temperature should be about 14-16 degrees, in sunny - about 14-18 degrees, and at night - from 6 to 10 degrees. At this stage of growing cabbage seedlings, they will need access to fresh air, but you should take into account that this plant reacts very negatively to a draught. In addition, the sprouts at this time need long light day (not less than 12-15 hours per day), so they need extra light, you can use for this phytolamp or fluorescent lamp. Substrate must not dry out, but just do not allow it and stagnant moisture. Systematic loosening of the soil mixture will help, it should be done immediately after watering.

Once the seedlings appear 7 days later they should be drenched with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (3 grams per 1 bucket of water) or a weak solution of copper sulfate.

Kale seedlings / Secrets of growing strong healthy cabbage seedlings

Sprouting sprouts

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

When the seedlings are 10-15 days old and have formed their first real leaves, they require picking, which allows the plantlets to have a larger feeding area. The seedlings should be watered very well 60 minutes before picking. After that, each plant should be taken out of the box with a clump of soil and plant them in separate cups (peat-peregneous recommended), pre-shorten the root to 1/3 of the length. In this case, the cabbage during the picking should be deepened to the cotyledon leaves.

If the seeds are sown in separate pots or cups, there's no need to dive. When planting plants in open soil, if they are removed from individual cups, their root system is not damaged as much as when transplanting from a common container. The fact is that the root system of the plants will have an impressive size by this time. It is best to use peat-mulch pots for growing cabbage because the plants can be planted in the soil together with them instead of being taken out of their containers.

Before planting seedlings in the open soil, they should be hardened, which will allow the plants to adapt to the new conditions of existence.

For this purpose the first two or three days in the room where the seedlings are, you have to open the window 3-4 hours, and do not forget to protect the seedlings from a draft. Then for a few days to regularly take the plants on a balcony, a loggia or outdoors so they could get used to the direct rays of the sun, and the first time the cabbage should be protected from them, covering it with gauze. After 7 days, watering should be greatly reduced and the seedlings should be moved to a balcony where they will remain until they are planted in the open soil.

Perching outdoors

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

What time to plant

In early-ripening cabbage varieties should be transplanted into the open soil after the plants have formed 5 to 7 true leaf plates and their height should be about 12-20 centimeters. And sprouts of late- and mid-maturing varieties of cabbage in the soil should be planted when their height is 15-20 centimeters, and they should have formed 4-6 true leaf plates.

As a rule, early-ripening varieties should be planted in the first days of May, medium-ripening ones in the second half of May, and late-ripening ones from the last days of May to mid-June.

Suitable soil

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

The plot on which the cabbage will grow needs to be carefully prepared. In doing so, it must be considered that it should be sunny. The sunlight should fall on it from the morning until the evening. It is recommended to plant early-ripening cabbage in sandy soil or loam, and late-ripening and medium-ripening varieties - in clay soil or loam.

Sandy soil should have a pH of 6.0, while clay and sandy-clay soil should have a pH of 7.0. This crop should not be grown on acidic soil. Those plots that are infected with bacteriosis cannot be used for cultivation of such a plant for 8 years.

Bad predecessors of cabbage are other members of the cruciferous family, such as radish, turnip, rutabaga, turnip, radish, mustard or cabbage. Only after 3 years on a plot where these plants were grown can cabbage be planted.

Preparing the soil on the plot intended for planting this crop should be done as early as the beginning of autumn. For this purpose, on a sunny day you should make digging of the plot to the depth of the bayonet of a spade. After this, there is no need to level the surface of the plot, because due to the large number of irregularities the ground can absorb more moisture in the winter and spring.

Leveling the surface of the site will need to deal in the spring, when the snow cover melted, this procedure is called "closure of moisture", because through it water from the soil will not evaporate very quickly. As soon as weeds appear on the plot, they should be pulled out immediately.

Seeding the sprouts into the subsoil!PROTECTION FROM THE BEAST!

Rules for planting in the open ground

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

A rough scheme for planting cabbage sprouts in the open ground:

  • for early-ripening and hybrid red and white cabbage varieties, 30x40 centimeters, medium-ripening varieties, 50x60 centimeters, and late-ripening varieties, 60x70 centimeters;
  • for kohlrabi - 30x40 centimeters;
  • for cauliflower - 25x50 centimeters;
  • for Brussels sprouts - 60x70 centimeters;
  • for Savoy cabbage - 40x60 centimeters;
  • for broccoli - 30x50 centimeters.

This crop needs plenty of light and space, so do not overgrow the plantings. Prepare a planting hole on the plot; it should be only slightly bigger than the plant's root system, taken with a root ball or a peat-mulch pot.

In each hole should be poured one handful of peat and sand, 50 grams of wood ash, 2 handfuls of humus and ½ tsp. nitrophoska. Mix the additives well together and sprinkle with plenty of water. The plant, taken together with the system of roots and a lump of earth, should be placed in the resulting slurry, after which the hole is covered with wet soil, which is slightly tamped, on top it should be covered with a layer of dry soil. If the seedlings are excessively elongated, they should be planted so that the first pair of true leaf plates is level with the surface of the plot.

Cabbage care

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

The first days should be a systematic inspection of the transplanted cabbage seedlings on the bed, this will allow you to plant the fallen plants in place in time. On the weather days, the transplanted plants need protection from direct sunlight; you can use a fleece or newspaper for this. For 7 days, water the cabbage daily in the evening time from a watering can with a sprinkler. After a week, the cover should be removed, but only if no frost is expected during the night.

After the seedlings have taken root, it is very easy to take care of them.

This requires timely watering, removing weeds, loosening the soil surface, feeding and, if necessary, treating the bushes against diseases and pests. Twenty days after planting the cabbage will need a dip, and 1.5 weeks later it should be dipped again.

How to water

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

Cultivating cabbage in open soil requires special attention to the watering regime. The thing is that this crop is a water-loving one.

Bushes are watered in the evening, in hot weather the frequency of abundant watering should be once every 2 or 3 days, and on rainy days one watering in 5 or 6 days is enough. After the plants have been watered, the surface of the bed should be thoroughly loosened, and at the same time the bushes should be dipped. To reduce the amount of watering, experienced growers recommend covering the surface of the plot with a five-cm layer of peat, which will also provide nutrients for the cabbage.

Fertilizer

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

For 7-9 days after the seedlings have been seeded, they should be fertilized with a nutrient mixture consisting of 1 liter water, 4 grams of superphosphate, 2 grams of potassium fertilizer and 2 grams of ammonium nitrate. One liter of this mixture is enough to fertilize 50 to 60 seedlings.

To prevent seedlings from getting burned, you should feed them after preliminary watering. The second feeding should be done after 15 days, using the same nutrient mixture, but the amount of fertilizer should be doubled. Slightly yellowed seedlings need feeding with a liquid solution of fermented manure (1:10). The third feeding called hardening, it's carried out a couple of days before transplanting the cabbage in the open soil, for this use a nutrient solution consisting of 1 liter of water, 8 grams of potassium fertilizer, 3 grams of ammonium nitrate and 5 grams of superphosphate. To make the seedlings root better after planting in open soil, a relatively large amount of potassium fertilizer is used for its fertilization.

Replace the above nutrient mixture can be ready liquid complex fertilizer Kemira lux.

If the cabbage sprouts received all the necessary fertilizers in time, it will please the gardener with its rapid growth and intensive development. However, after this culture is planted on the bed, it needs to continue to feed. When the bushes begin to actively grow leaves, they should be fertilized with a solution consisting of 1 bucket of water and 10 grams of ammonium nitrate, this volume is calculated for fertilizing 5 or 6 copies. After the beginning of the formation of leaves into a cabbage, the plants should be fertilized again, but this time use the following composition: 5 grams of double superphosphate, 4 grams of urea and 8 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 bucket of water.

This amount of solution is enough for 5-6 bushes.

YODE - SUPER MOTION FOR KAPUSTA!

Cabbage treatment

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

After the sprouts are put in the beds, they require at first a dusting with wood ashes combined with tobacco powder. This will deter fleas and slugs from the immature young bushes. This plant is a food product, in connection with this, experts advise to use chemical preparations for its treatment only in the most extreme cases. But what is better to use in this case? There are quite a few folk remedies that can protect this culture from such pests as: caterpillars, aphids, slugs, snails and larvae.

To get rid of caterpillars and aphids, you can use the following infusion: for its preparation you need to combine half a bucket of water and 2 kg of tomato heads, after 3-4 h of infusion boiled for 3 h, and when it cools, strain and dilute with water in a 1:2 ratio. Also in the infusion is recommended to pour 20 to 30 grams of grinded tar soap, in which case it will "stick" to the leaves, but not drip onto the soil. Also to combat these pests sometimes use infusion of onion husks. For its preparation, a liter jar of onion hulls is taken, which should be combined with 2 liters of just boiled water and 1 tbsp. of dishwashing liquid or liquid soap.

To get rid of the May beetle, cabbage fly or moth larvae, ants should be attracted to the cabbage bed. To do this you need to dig a small container full of water in which you dissolve honey or jam. Black ants like very sweet things and also feed on the larvae of harmful insects. Plant mint, coriander, rosemary, marigold, sage, basil or other herbs around the bed to prevent the appearance of harmful insects. Butterflies, fleas, aphids and slugs do not like the pungent smell of this plant, but it attracts enemies of these pests such as lacewings, ladybugs, honey bugs etc.

Kale pests-why we have not seen them for three years

Kale diseases with photos

Kale may be infested by a disease that develops very quickly. If the vegetable grower in this case does not take all necessary measures to combat it as soon as possible, he may be left without a crop at all.

Kila

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This fungal disease poses the greatest danger to this crop. It affects early maturing varieties of cauliflower and white cabbage and infects plants when they are still in their seedling stage. Affected plants have growths on their root system that contribute to malnutrition.

Because of this, the seedlings have a delay in development, while it does not happen forming ovaries. Sick bushes should be dug out and destroyed along with the root ball, and the resulting hole should be covered with a layer of lime. Only members of the Cabbage family are infected by this disease, therefore it is safe to grow other cultures on this site.

Black leg disease

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

Very often black leg affects cabbage sprouts or young bushes planted in the open ground. This fungal disease affects the root neck at the base of the stem.

As the disease develops, the affected parts of the plant become black, they become thinning and rotting, the growth of the cabbage becomes slower and eventually it dies. Affected seedlings will die in any case, so there is no point in planting them in a bed. If the diseased plants were killed by blackleg while growing in the bed, the soil on it must necessarily be replaced, as it can no longer be used to grow cabbage. For preventive purposes, seed and soil should be treated before sowing. For seed treatment you should use Garnosan (follow the instructions), for treatment of 100 seeds 0,4 grams of the product is enough, and for ground you should add Tiram (TMTD) (50%), for 1 sq.

m. area you should use 50 grams.

False powdery mildew (peronosporosis)

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

As a rule, the causative agents of this disease are present in the seed material; therefore, it is not recommended to neglect its pre-sowing preparation. The disease begins to develop actively in damp weather, with pale yellow-red spots appearing on the outer leaves of the shrubs. Over time, the leaf plates become yellow, and dieback occurs.

To prevent this, seed should be disinfected with Planriz or Tiram before sowing. Some gardeners instead dip the seeds into hot (about 50 degrees) water, where they should stay for 20 to 25 minutes. If the presowing preparation was not carried out or it was ineffective, the bushes should be sprayed with garlic decoction. To prepare it, 1 bucket of water should be combined with 75 grams of crushed garlic, after 12 hours the mixture is heated on a fire until boiling, and then cooled, after which the broth will be ready for use. If this measure also proves to be ineffective, the cabbage should be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin-M (2-3%).

Repeated treatment, if necessary, is carried out after 15-20 days. However, remember not to spray with a fungicide after the cabbage has set, otherwise there is a high risk of poison accumulation in the leaves.

Gray and white rot

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

White rot occurs if it is cold and damp outside. Affected shrubs exhibit desquamation of the outer leaf plates and a white cotton-like mycelium forms between them with black sclerotia 1-30 mm in size. An infected fork in storage begins to rot, and the disease spreads to other nearby sprouts.

During storage, the symptoms of gray rot also appear. Thus, at the lower leaf plates on the surface of the petioles, a fluffy mold with a bead of dots of black color forms. To protect cabbage from these diseases it is necessary to: disinfect the seed before sowing, adhere to the agronomic rules of the crop, clean and disinfect storage facilities before depositing the bunches, store properly, conduct systematic fork inspections, and clean up affected areas if necessary.

Fusarium wilt (cabbage yellowing)

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This disease is caused by the fungus Fusarium. The yellowing lesion occurs as early as the seedling stage, and very often 20 to 25 percent of all seedlings die.

Affected plants have leaf plates that lose their turgor and yellow foci appear on their surface. In areas of yellowing, the leaves develop more slowly, and the affected foliage dies off. All diseased bushes should be removed from the soil and destroyed, and the soil should be replaced or steamed. To get rid of the fungus you must carry out preventive soil treatment in autumn and spring with copper sulfate solution (5 grams of copper sulfate per 1 bucket of water).

Rizoktoniosis

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

The development of this fungal disease occurs under sharp temperature changes (for example, from 4 to 24 degrees), air humidity (45 to 100%), soil acidity (pH 4.

5-8). A diseased plant is affected by the root neck, which becomes yellow, withers and dies off. The root system of the diseased bush becomes like a sponge. As the disease progresses, the cabbage dies. Bushes become infected in the open soil, and the development of the disease does not stop in storage.

For preventive purposes, the site should be treated with copper chloroxide or a product that includes it before planting seedlings in open soil.

Almost everything about cabbage diseases.

Cabbage pests with photos

The above described in detail how to save cabbage from caterpillars, snails, slugs, aphids and larvae. However, other insects can also harm this plant.

Cabbage bugs

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

These mottled bugs, which are about 10 mm long and overwinter in the ground, are very dangerous to cabbage.

They begin to eat seedlings in the last days of April, then in the first weeks of summer the females set up oviposition, the larvae appear half a month later, and in 4 weeks they become adult insects. The bugs pierce the surface of the leaf plates and suck the sap from the plant. The leaf tissue where the piercing is located dies off. If there are very many punctures, the leaf plates wither, dry up, and die off. In the dry period, this pest poses the greatest danger to cabbage.

For prevention purposes, all weeds belonging to the cruciferous family, such as bitterroot, sorrel, field orchid, shepherd's purse, borage, and gerouche, should be pulled from the site. When the crop is harvested, all of the weeds should be removed from the area and collected and destroyed. To get rid of this pest, the seedlings should be sprayed with Fosbetsid or Actellic before the cabbage begins to form.

Cabbage leaf beetle

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This small beetle is about 0.5 cm long and egg-shaped.

It injures leaf laminae by piercing holes in them or by piercing notches in the edges. Leaf beetles hibernate in soil, hatching females. After 10-12 days the larvae hatch from their eggs, feeding by scraping the skin of leaf plates. For preventive purposes, all weeds belonging to the cabbage family should be pulled out of the plot. To repel this pest, you must treat bushes on dew every morning with a mixture consisting of wood ash or burnt lime and tobacco dust (1:1).

Before cabbage heads begin to form, a solution of Actellic (2%) or the biopreparation Bankola, which is less toxic, can be used to treat plants.

Cauliflower Spiny Sprout

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

It is a black-colored bug about 0.3 cm long. Its larvae pose a danger to the plant by gnawing holes in the petioles of leaf plates through which they penetrate into the stem and descend through tunnels made in it into the root system of the shrub. As a result, the conductive system is damaged, the leaves turn yellow, plant development stops, and soon it dies.

To exterminate this beetle, in the autumn time it is necessary to remove all plant residues from the plot, as well as to recultivate the soil. During the vegetation period it is necessary to remove weeds from a bed in time, as well as promptly dig out and destroy cabbage infested by the hidden moth. To eliminate this pest, you may use Fosbetside or Actellic, but this treatment is allowed only in the early stage of seedling development in open soil.

Kale harvesting and storage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

When the cabbage crop is about 20 days old, you should stop watering it. This will result in a relatively rapid accumulation of fiber in the cabbage heads, which will make them store better.

After the temperature has dropped to minus 2 degrees at night, you can start harvesting the cabbage forks. You should not procrastinate with the harvesting because if the forks freeze over, it will have a very bad effect on their storability. Then they have to be sorted by removing the ones that are damaged by pests, small and decayed which can be used for eating or pickling but are not suitable for storage. All forks that are suitable for storage should be placed under a shelter where they will stay for 24 hours. During this time, the sprouts will dry out and get a little drier.

After that, the cabbage should be cut from the core 20 mm below the fork, and there should be 3 or 4 cover plates of green. The cabbage should then be stored.

The cellar is an excellent place to store this vegetable since the temperature is never below zero degrees and the humidity is high. If it does not get warmer than 4-6 degrees Celsius in the wintertime, this vegetable will be stored very well in the cellar. The ideal conditions for storing cabbage are as follows: humidity of 90-98 percent, and the temperature - from minus 1 to plus 1 degree.

Before putting cabbage in storage, it should be prepared. Despite the fact that the humidity in the cellar is very high, there should be no mold anywhere, and the floor should be thoroughly cleaned of debris. After the walls are whitewashed with quicklime, the cellar should be fumigated with sulfur. Also in the storage room should be good ventilation. If there is no ventilation, experts recommend at least once every 4 weeks to ventilate the store.

The forks should be placed in 1 layer on the shelves, they can also be wrapped in newspaper and hung or put in a pyramid on a wooden board.

However, experienced vegetable growers have a few secrets that help this vegetable stay fresh for a long time:

  1. Twine two forks by the pips and hang them from poles under the ceiling. Suspended sprouts are very easy to inspect for spoilage, and in this position they have good air access.
  2. The heads may be stored in latticed boxes made of wood, which are placed on shelves or on racks. They should not be placed on the floor.

  3. Forks should be wrapped in paper and placed in a plastic bag, which should not be tied. This bag can be placed on a shelf or suspended from the ceiling.
  4. The cabbage should be placed in a 10L bucket that is filled with soil, and the forks should also be covered with soil on top. In this form the cabbage is put into storage. The soil may be replaced with sand if you wish.

How to store cabbage in winter

There are also other storage methods. To do this, the cabbage should have all the covering leaf plates cut off, but the root should not be cut off. The forks should be hung by the roots in a draught, where they will have to wilt a little. After the upper leaf plates have dried a little, the cabbage is put away in storage, for this purpose it is tied in pairs, after which it is hung by the roots to the ceiling. Also forks can be immersed in a clay batter, the consistency of which should be similar to the dough for pancakes.

The cabbage should be completely covered with the clay, and the surface of the leaf plates should not be visible through it. It should be suspended. After the clay has dried completely, hang the cabbage from the ceiling of the storage room.

Red cabbage and white cabbage can be stored using all of the above methods. Heads of cauliflower are wrapped in paper sheets and hung from the ceiling in the cellar, and can only be stored in this way.

You can also wrap the forks in a paper towel and place them in a plastic bag, which should not be tied tightly. Then it is removed to the refrigerator shelf, intended for vegetables. In this form the cabbage will be stored for about 8 weeks.

Species and varieties of cabbage with photos and names

Cabbage is grown both in vegetable gardens and on an industrial scale, since it, like potatoes, is a major vegetable crop. Because of this, there are a very large number of species and varieties of this vegetable.

The following will describe the types and varieties of this crop to be grown in the open field.

Cabbage . Varieties and varieties of cabbage.

White cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

White cabbage is most popular with gardeners in the middle latitudes. Its stem is not very tall and thickened, it is covered with large leafy plates, and there is also a sprout, which is a highly sprawling apex bud.

There are forks that weigh about 16 kilograms, they are dense and have a rounded shape. This vegetable contains carotene, fiber, vitamin B and C. In alternative medicine, such a cabbage is used for stomach diseases and swellings, and externally it is used for boils and pustules. Cabbage variety influences the size of the cabbage head and the yield of the plant: the earliest varieties are the earliest - June and Gribovskaya, medium-ripening - Glory and Gift, and late-ripening - Amager and Moscow late.

Red cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This species is very similar to white cabbage, but it is more frost-resistant.

The leaf plates are purple in color, the forks weigh up to 5 kilos, they are very dense and due to that have an excellent storability. Such cabbage has 4 times more carotene and 2 times less fiber if compared with white cabbage. It also contains iodine, mineral salts, pantothenic acid, iron, cyanidine (strengthens the walls of blood vessels). The most popular varieties are Gaco, Mikhailovskaya, Stone Head.

Colored Cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This dietary vegetable consists of a lumpy, granular head of pale cream-colored, hemispherical shape that is surrounded by green leafy plates.

The head can weigh up to 1.5 kg, and includes rudimentary florets on short, branched stalks that are almost fused together. The most popular varieties are the following: early-ripening - Movir, Early Gribovskaya, Garantiya, medium-ripening - Moscow Konservskaya, Otechestvennaya, late-ripening - Adlerskaya Winter.

Broccoli

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This is a variety of cauliflower. The heads consist of inflorescences that have a purple or green coloring.

Such cabbage is rich in mineral salts of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, vitamins C, A, B1, B2, PP. It is noted for its antioxidant properties and is recommended for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This plant has a long stem and on it are many small sprouts that look similar to white cabbage forks. This cabbage has more vitamin C than citrus fruits and is high in protein and contains magnesium, phosphorus and folic acid. It helps greatly improve mental performance and also strengthens the immune system.

Savoy cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

It is similar in shape to white cabbage, but its bale is loose and consists of strongly corrugated tender leafy plates of rich green color. Such cabbage, as compared to white cabbage, contains more vitamins and proteins.

Cauliflower

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

The bush is a ball-shaped stem on which there are long-petioled leaf plates. Such cabbage is rich in vitamin C, protein, calcium and glucose.

Beijing cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

Today this species is very popular in middle latitudes.

The slightly loose head has an oblong shape, the fiber is pleasant to the taste and tender. It contains many useful substances. Remarkably, the vitamin C from the leaves does not disappear during storage.

Chinese cabbage

Cabbage: cultivation and care in the open field, pests and diseases

This leafy vegetable crop has no forks formed. It is similar in appearance to lettuce and in composition to white cabbage.

Its composition includes the valuable amino acid lysine: it strengthens the immune system, as well as removes toxins and impurities from the body. This type of cabbage is considered a source of longevity.

Cabbage varieties. Varieties and varieties of cabbage.Review.

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