The beautiful flowering shrub Brugmansia is a member of the Solanaceae family. In nature, this plant is about 400-500 cm tall. However, in domestic conditions, it usually does not exceed 200 cm. When flowering, it has spectacular large funnel-shaped flowers that can be up to 0.4 m long.
Flowers can be either simple or two-tiered (depends on cultivar and species).
In regions with warm climates, brugmansia is cultivated in the open ground. However, in most regions of Russia it is cultivated as a room or caddy crop. This plant is native to the subtropical and tropical parts of South America. Seven species of brugmansia have been found in the wild.
Breeders actively use them to breed new varieties and hybrids.
Brugmansia has a medium intensity of growth. As a rule, flowering lasts throughout the summer period. However, if you provide it with extra light in the evening, then the bush will please with its flowers till the winter. This perennial is medium difficult to grow.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature regime. In the summertime the air temperature should be close to room temperature, in the wintertime not more than 15 degrees.
- Humidity level. It should be elevated (not less than 60 percent).
Needs plenty of bright but diffused sunlight. A southern window is ideal, but the bush needs shade.
- Pouring. The potting soil should be slightly moist all the time.
Nutritious and light, be sure to make a layer of drainage at the bottom of the pot.
- Fertilizer. Needs regular feeding.
- Potting. Carried out as needed, sometimes two or three times a year.
- Propagation. By apical cuttings and by seed.
- Trimming. Needs systematic formative pruning.
Brugmansia in the flower garden.
Care, propagation, diseases, pests.
Home care of brugmansia
The indoor brugmansia is quite demanding in care. It needs certain overwintering conditions as well as regular watering.
Brugmansia flowers are shaped like long gramophones. They can be white, pink or yellow (depending on the species).
The life span of an individual flower is short. However, the shrub blooms so lushly that the flowers adorn it throughout the summer period. If you provide the brugmansia with regular extra light, it can continue flowering even during the cold season.
In room conditions, this plant feels best at an air temperature of 23-25 degrees. Do not forget to ventilate the room in which the bush is located regularly on hot summer days.
If there is such a possibility, then in the warm season it is better to move brugmansia to fresh air, for example, in the garden. The plant responds positively to sudden changes in air temperature at night and during the day.
The plant should be given a cool overwintering (10 to 15 degrees). This will give the plant a dormant period. If you do not have a cool place to overwinter the brugmansia, make sure it is illuminated by daily lightening.
Indoor plants need regular moistening with a sprayer. In some cases, the shrub needs to be sprayed up to several times a day. Care must be taken to ensure that the humidity level in the room with the plant is not less than 60 percent. Use soft and non-cold water for spraying.
Brugmansia needs plenty of bright sunlight in the room.
A southern window sill is perfect for it. If you place the shrub on a northern window, you have to provide it with almost constant light. You can use special phytolamps with a pink spectrum or daylight lamps.
Pour the brugmansia liberally. During active growth, it is not uncommon to moisten the soil mixture in the pot up to twice a day.
Make sure that the surface of the potting soil is slightly moist all the time. After the bush has flowered, the leaves will grow less vigorously and at this time, the frequency and amount of watering should be somewhat reduced.
In cool overwintering, when the plant is dormant, water as infrequently as possible. Make sure, however, that the clump of earth in the pot does not dry out completely. If the bush is kept warm during the winter, continue to water in the same way as in summer.
Because the plant has a strong root system that grows quite quickly, choose a tall and wide pot for its planting. As soon as the roots become cramped, transplant the brugmansia into a new, larger pot.
A mixture of peat, perlite, leaf and sod soil and humus (1:1:1:2:1) is used for planting. If desired, a universal seedling soil mixture can be purchased at a specialist retailer for planting brugmansia.
The plant needs regular and frequent nutrition.
During active growth, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are used for its nutrition. During the budding period the bush is fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer.
Fertilizing is recommended to use complex mineral fertilizers alternately with organics. Fertilizing is carried out about once every 7 days. Do not fertilize if the plant is cool in winter.
Potting the bush as needed. Once the root system has filled all the free space of the pot, transplanting the brugmansia into a larger container is required. As a rule, during the year it has to be transplanted at least three or four times. Transplant the bush very carefully, because its root system is very fragile. After transplanting, the plant should be treated with Kornevin, which helps the roots recover.
Transplanting brugmansia grown from cuttings.
Brugmansia is fast growing, so it needs to be pruned often. In the spring, all stems of the plant should be cut back about 1/3 of their length. Remember that pruning should be done in moderation. If it is too strong, it will have a negative impact on flowering, which will become less lush.
The fact is that the flower buds by spring will already be laid on the stems. Throughout the summer period on the plant systematically cut off some of the stems. Remember that if the plant has too many stems, flowering will be scarce.
Brugmansia outside, can you put it on a balcony?
In the warm season, if possible put it on a balcony or into the garden. Choose a sunny spot for it but do not shade it from direct sunlight.
To reduce the frequency of watering, the pot with brugmansia should be dug into the ground. Fluctuations between day and night temperatures have a favorable effect on the growth and development of the brugmansia. Thanks to this there is the laying of many flower buds. You should bring the shrub inside before the first frost.
Wintering is recommended to put the shrub in a well-lit room, with a temperature of no more than 10 degrees.
It is watered sparingly and infrequently, and the humidity level should be high. If you don't have a cool room or a glassed-in balcony, it is advisable to place the brugmansia in a well-lit and cool window. Humidify it regularly with a sprayer so that it has a good air moisture level. Not only will the plant feel great in winter if cared for properly, it can also continue to bloom. Too warm in the room may cause all leaves to fall off or the shrub to die.
Growing from seeds
Brugmansia can be planted from seeds if desired. But remember that seedlings can retain the varietal characteristics of the parent plant only partially. Sowing is carried out in a mixture of sand, peat and perlite (1:1:1). Deepen the seed into it no more than 10 mm. The seeds are covered with film or glass.
After the first seedlings have emerged, the cover is removed. When the bushes develop 3 or 4 true leaf plates, they will need to be sprouted in separate pots. Seed propagation of brugmansia has only one disadvantage - it takes quite a long time. The first flowering of the bush can only be seen when it is two or three years old.
After pruning in the spring, there are many apex cuttings left that you can try to root.
Take the cuttings and cut off all of the largest leaf plates. The remaining leaves should be shortened by ½. Before rooting, the lower part of the cuttings should be treated with a product that stimulates root formation, such as Heteroauxin or Kornevin.
The rooting cuttings should be placed in a container with water and a tablet of activated charcoal put in it. When roots appear on the cuttings, plant them in a fertile and loose soil mixture.
The following problems can occur with brugmansia if not properly cared for or under unsuitable growing conditions:
- Lack of flowering. This can be due to too much nitrogen in the substrate. Poor lighting can also be the cause.
- Stem elongation. This is due to the brugmansia standing in too dark a place.
- Yellowing and flying off of the young leaves. This may be due to too much nitrogen in the soil mixture.
- The appearance of rot. Too dense a soil mixture and too much moisture can cause roots to rot.
- Foliage in winter time.
The plant feels a severe lack of light.
- Foliage fall. Watering too infrequently or sparingly.
- Pests. Whitefly and spider mite most often settle on the plant.
Brugmansia species with photos
Only a few species of brugmansia are grown at home. These will be discussed in more detail below.
Brugmansia bloody (Brugmansia sanguinea)
This species differs from the others in that its odorless flowers are painted a reddish orange hue, with streaks of yellow. If the room will be too hot for a long time (more than 25 degrees), then the bush will not bloom. In nature, the species is found in Ecuador and Chile.
Brugmansia snow-white (Brugmansia candida)
The tubular flowers smell particularly pungent in the evening. They may be colored pink, white or yellow (depending on the variety). The long-petioled, oval leaf plates have slight pubescence on the surface. The plant only sets buds when the temperature changes between day and night.
Brugmansia aromatica (Brugmansia suaveolens)
Native to this plant is the eastern part of Brazil.
In the wild, the species is represented by small (about 5 m tall) trees. The flowers reach about 30 centimeters in length and may be colored pink or white.
Brugmansia golden (Brugmansia aurea)
The stout, large bushes are decorated with yellow flowers. Unlike other species, the flowers have an outward bend. The species is native to Colombia, more specifically its northern part.
Properties of brugmansia
Where brugmansia is native to, the local population uses it extensively as a medicinal plant. It has hallucinogenic properties that are used for religious rituals. Keep in mind that each of the parts of the plant contains a strong poison, more specifically, they contain atropine and scopolamine in high concentrations. The flowers of this plant have a pungent odor that can give you a severe headache.
BROUGHMANN// My years of experience propagating with cuttings, planting, transplanting and preserving in winter.