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The sea buckthorn plant (Hippophae) is a member of the loquat family. It prefers to grow on river and lake shores on pebbles or sand. This plant can be found in the mountains at an altitude of 2100 m above sea level. Sea buckthorn in alternative medicine was used even in ancient Greece, it was treated horses and humans. Gradually its useful properties began to be forgotten, but recently this plant has again become quite popular.

The scientific name of this plant in translation from Greek means "shine for horses", because those animals that ate the leaves of sea buckthorn, appeared satin finish on the skin. In Russia such a crop began to be cultivated since the 19th century, but the first varieties of plants did not appear until the thirties of the 20th century.

Special features of sea buckthorn

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Buckthorn is not a very large tree or shrub, which can vary in height from 0.1 to 6 meters or even more. Its root system is superficial, about 0.

4m deep in the soil. However, it grows very strongly in width, so the diameter of the crown is less than the diameter of the root system by 2-2.5 times. The alternately arranged narrow, long leaf plates have a green speckled front surface and a goldish-reddish or whitish-silver opposite surface, as the latter is covered with stellate scales. The unisexual flowers are small and of no ornamental value.

Their opening is observed almost at the same time as the leaf plates. It blooms in the last days of April or early May. Buckthorn is a biparental plant: short spike-like inflorescences are located at the bases of young shoots and consist of male flowers of brownish-silver color, while in the axils of crown scales there are 1 or more female flowers of pale yellow color. The fruit is a false elongated or globular achene, which consists of a nut and a sprawling flower sprout of pale red or orange color. It takes 90 to 100 days for the fruit to ripen.

The branches are swarming with fruit, which explains its name in Russia.

Fruits are used for preparing jams and juices as well as for extracting oil with medicinal properties. The plant is very frost-resistant, up to -50 Celsius, and its root system in the soil can survive temperature decrease to -20 Celsius. However, winter thaws can harm sea buckthorn, because its root system can freeze in unfrozen soil.

If you plant only 1 bush of sea buckthorn, it is unlikely to bear fruit.

The fact is that, more often than not, male and female flowers are arranged on different specimens. Still, it is extremely rare to find forms that have ovipotent flowers. Fruits are usually produced by the female plants, and the male plants are necessary for pollination. All it takes is one male plant to pollinate 3 to 5 female plants. It is only when you have flower buds on the male or female plants that you will be able to tell whether they are male or female.

Female plants have smaller buds and fewer of them than male plants. Sea buckthorn begins to bear fruit on the 4th-6th year from the beginning of its growth.

Buckthorn berries are becoming increasingly popular among gardeners today. Although not as popular as, for example, raspberries, gooseberries, grapes, strawberries or currants, it can be seen in gardens much more often than strawberries, blueberries, actinidia, iris, blackberries or blueberries. The berries of this plant are not only tasty but also very useful.

Below we will discuss sea buckthorn, it is found in almost all of Europe, and it is also cultivated by Russian gardeners.

Buckthorn. Features and care of sea buckthorn

Putting sea buckthorn in open soil

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When to plant

As a rule, sea buckthorn in open soil is planted in early spring before the buds open. It is very poorly tolerated in the autumn. It is recommended to plant sea buckthorn in a well-lit area, located on the periphery of the garden plot.

The fact is that on such a plot you can easily place 3 or 4 female and 1 male plant. If the soil is clayey or acidic, it is not suitable for planting such a culture. This plant will grow best in soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0.

If the soil is acidic, then before planting sea buckthorn, it is carried out liming, for this purpose, lime tuff or ground limestone is added under digging, with 250 to 400 grams of the substance per 1 square meter. This amount of deoxidizer should be enough for 8-10 years. The depth of ground water should be not less than 200 cm. A site where strawberries were previously grown is not recommended for planting sea buckthorn as these crops have the same diseases.

Buckthorn planting in spring

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Experienced gardeners recommend buying one- or two-year old seedlings.

Immediately before planting in open soil, the root system of the plant should be dipped in a clay putty. If the root system is quite dry, it should first be placed in a container with water for 1-2 days, in which case it will become elastic again.

Preparing the site for planting is carried out in autumn time. To do this, it is necessary to make the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the spade, with 200 grams of superphosphate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate and 4 to 5 buckets of humus at the rate of 1 square meter. The pit itself should be dug in the spring, its size should be 0,65x0,65x0,65 m, the distance between the plants should be 200 cm.

In the center of the bottom of the hole should be set a wooden stake, the height of which should be 100-120 centimeters. Then a mound of nutritious soil is poured on the bottom of the hole, and a seedling is placed on top of it. After all the roots are spread out, the hole should be filled with soil, which is previously mixed with humus, coarse sand or peat in a 1:1 ratio. Make sure that the root neck of the seedling is not sunk more than 30 mm into the soil. Around the sapling you should make a not very large circular hole, in which water is poured during watering.

After the sea buckthorn is tied to the peg, it should be watered with 20-30 liters of water. After the liquid is absorbed into the hole, it should be covered with a layer of mulch (dry soil or humus) so that it is flush with the surface of the ground. For the plant to take root quickly and well it should be watered daily for the first 30 days.

Spring planting of sea buckthorn. How to distinguish between male and female buckthorn

Planting buckthorn in autumn

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Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting buckthorn in the open soil in the fall.

However, if this is simply necessary, it must be done before the second half of October, otherwise it will not have time to take root in its new location before the first frosts. It is also worth considering that the autumn planting only makes sense if the region has a rather long autumn and the seedling meets all requirements, namely:

  • three scaffold roots about 20 centimeters long and many lingual roots;
  • the stem should be 0.35-0.5 m high and not less than 60mm diameter;
  • there should be several shoots on the stem.

Check the bark; if the seedling is healthy, it will be elastic without wrinkles or injury.

The bark should be tight against the wood, the color of which should not be brownish. The fact is that the wood becomes brown only in frost-damaged seedlings.

Prepare the hole as described above. In the center of its bottom, a peg is set and a mound of soil is poured, taken from under an adult sea buckthorn bush, which must first be combined with a handful of double superphosphate, 1 bucket of humus and 1 tbsp of wood ash. Then planting is carried out in the same way as in spring.

Care for sea buckthorn

Care for sea buckthorn in spring

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Care for sea buckthorn in the garden is not difficult at all, but you need to know some nuances. In the last days of March, after it gets warm enough outside, sanitary pruning of the bush should be done by cutting out all withered, injured, disease-damaged and drooping branches. In April the surface of the root zone and the soil between the rows should be loosened or combed.

In May the plant should be watered, especially if there was little snow during the winter and the spring was dry. However, if there has been a fair amount of snow during the winter and it rained in the spring, you can water later.

In the event of calm, windless weather during the flowering period, the sea buckthorn will need additional pollination. To do this, a branch from the male bush should be cut off and shaken over the shoots of the female specimen.

Care for sea buckthorn in summer

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The summer is a time of active growth of sea buckthorn berries and stems. At this time, special attention should be paid to watering the shrub, making sure the surface of the bedding circle does not dry out. But watering should be moderate.

This culture reacts extremely negatively to both excessive drought and stagnant water in the soil. So, if the soil will be overwatered, then the flow of air to the roots will deteriorate, which will negatively affect their vitality. Watch the water balance of the soil, and 24 hours after watering it is necessary to loosen the surface of the rooting circle and the soil between the rows. It is necessary to do timely weeding and cut out the root shoots. Regularly inspect the plant for signs of various diseases.

The berries begin to ripen in August or September. Branches overloaded with fruit may break and need to be supported. It is best to start harvesting when the color and size of berries are the same as in the cultivar.

Harvesting sea buckthorn in autumn

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When all fruits are harvested, pruning should be done. The adult shrubs are rejuvenated in the autumn, with only one plant being pruned each year.

If in the autumn time there is dry weather, the sea buckthorn in deep autumn will need abundant watering. Even in the autumn the plant needs to be fertilized, for this purpose it is necessary to make organic and phosphorus fertilizers in the soil. Fertilizer should be applied under the digging of the soil on the plot to a depth of about 10 centimeters.

Treatment of sea buckthorn

All experienced gardeners know that it is better to conduct regular preventive treatments of the plant than to treat it against various diseases or pests later. At the very beginning of the spring period the area where sea buckthorn grows should be free of last year's leaves and the plant - from the remains of berries and flowers.

Wounds on branches and trunks are cleaned, and then they should be treated with a solution of copper sulfate (3%). To protect the bark of the plant from the pest, the skeletal branches and the trunk are whitewashed with lime. To protect sea buckthorn from fungal diseases and pests, many gardeners resort to the following procedure: the bush is treated twice during the season (in early spring and deep autumn) with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or urea (7%). If pests are seen on the plant, it should be sprayed with a solution of wood ash once a week.

Watering the sea buckthorn

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Water the plant only when necessary, making sure that after watering the entire root-containing layer of soil is well soaked.

For this purpose, 30 to 40 liters of water should be poured into the root zone of a young plant and 60 to 80 liters of water for an adult plant. By the end of the summer period, the water consumption per bush should be increased by 1.5 times. To increase the plant's resistance to frost, it is necessary to carry out a winter watering.

If it rains or the plant is watered, it is mandatory to loosen the soil surface.

Air is necessary for the roots of this plant, because the roots contain nodules where bacteria live that assimilate nitrogen from the air and enrich the root zone with nitrogen compounds. These compounds are necessary for the plant to grow properly. Since the root system of this plant is horizontal and shallow, frequent loosening increases the risk of damaging it. To greatly reduce the number of weeding, hoeing and watering, mulch (humus or compost from birch or apple leaves or potato tops) must be added to the surface of the root zone.

Feeding sea buckthorn

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Feeding sea buckthorn should start in its third year of growth.

The root system of an adult bush can provide itself with nitrogen on its own, so only phosphorus and potassium should be fed to such a plant, and the fertilizer should be applied to the soil. However, up to five years of age, in the spring time, ammonium nitrate (20 grams per 1 square meter) should be distributed along the root zone of the plant, and then the fertilizer should be covered with a layer of soil.

Fruit-bearing plants immediately after flowering should be given foliar feeding with a solution of Effeton or liquid potassium humate (1 tablespoon per bucket of water). Repeated such feeding is carried out 20 days after the first one. During the formation of ovaries to fertilize sea buckthorn use the following nutrient mixture: 1 bucket of water takes 2 large spoonfuls of nutrient mixture Universal-micro and double superphosphate (in pellets), and 1 large spoonful of potassium sulfate.

In autumn during the recultivation of the plot to the soil should be fertilized: 100 grams of wood ash, 30 grams of superphosphate and 25 grams of potassium salt per 1 square meter plot. If the soil is acidic, superphosphate must be replaced with phosphate meal (50 grams per square meter).

Trimming sea buckthorn

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When to prune

Trimming sea buckthorn can be done in spring, summer and autumn. However, it is often done in early spring while it is still cool outside and the plant is dormant. In autumn the plant is pruned in preparation for winter.

Spring pruning of sea buckthorn

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Sanitary pruning is done in spring to remove all withered, injured and diseased branches and stems. Young plants need formative pruning, and the gardener must choose how he will form the plant: a bush or a tree. To form a shrub, a newly planted seedling should be cut to a height of 10 to 20 centimeters. On the stump, shoots should appear, and it will also grow from the root, the next year you will need to select the 4 most powerful shoots from them, and cut out the remaining ones. Note, however, that root shoots should be left only in rootstock plants.

The cucumber tree should have a 0.3 m high trunk and 2 to 4 skeletal branches. If the seedling has already fully formed branches, it does not need to be pruned. However, if there are no branches on these branches, the seedling should be shortened to 0.3 m, next season from the grown shoots it will be necessary to form 3 or 4 scaffold branches, as well as a conductor, then they are cut at the same height.

In case the branches start to grow too vigorously next season, they should be shortened to 1/3 or ΒΌ of their length. Once the plant has begun to bear fruit, you should stop cutting the top parts of the shoots because the flower buds will form on them.

When the shrub or tree is fully formed, you should only regularly cut out unwanted stems that are growing in the wrong direction and contributing to overgrowth. Root shoots should be cut out as follows: the sprout should be dug out and carefully cut into a ring where it has sprouted, taking care not to injure the roots of the plant.

When the sea buckthorn reaches six years of age, it will need rejuvenation pruning, this should also be done in the springtime.

Branches which have ceased to bear fruit should be removed and replaced with younger and stronger ones (even wolf branches can be used). Each year 1-3 branches at most should be replaced.

If the plant is very badly damaged by frost or if it dies, check the condition of the root system. If the root is alive the plant should be cut down to the root neck and then a new shrub or tree should be formed.

Trimming sea buckthorn in autumn

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In deep autumn, when the plant is in its dormant period, a sanitary pruning should be done by cutting out all old, redundant, injured, wrongly growing, withered and diseased stems and branches.

Sea buckthorn should only be cut with a very sharp instrument, which must be disinfected as the wound and bark must not be soaked during the trimming.

Trimming sea buckthorn. Garden World Website

Buckthorn propagation

There are several different methods for propagating sea buckthorn: by seeds, cuttings, grafting, grafting, division of the bush and by grafts. No matter which method you choose, you will not have much trouble propagating this crop.

How to grow from seed

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If you want a variety seedling, you should choose vegetative propagation methods because a plant obtained from seed cannot retain the varietal characteristics of the mother bush.

As a rule, breeders are engaged in cultivation of seedlings from seeds, and also seedlings are used as a rootstock for grafting sea buckthorn.

Seeds remain germinating for 2 years or even longer. The seeds need to be stratified before sowing by placing them in the refrigerator on the vegetable shelf for six weeks. Sowing is carried out in the last days of April, the seeds should not deepen too much. The container is covered with glass and placed in a well-lit and warm place.

The first seedlings should appear after 7-15 days, at first they should be protected from direct sunlight. Seedlings are transplanted to a permanent location in mid-June, and the long tap root must be shortened to stimulate root growth.

Buckthorn propagation by cuttings

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Buckthorn is propagated by single-tree and green cuttings. The cutting of green cuttings is made in the last days of November or first days of December, but can also be done in late March or early April. However, gardeners recommend that cuttings be taken in the spring.

Two-year-old shoots with a thickness of at least 60 mm should be used. The length of cuttings varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. The cuttings harvested in the autumn should be tied into a bundle, which should be wrapped in cloth and placed in a polyethylene bag. The cuttings should then be placed in a hole and covered with soil, with a thick layer of snow, dried leaves or lapwort.

In spring, the cuttings should be placed in a container with water for 3 days before planting in the open soil, which should be changed regularly.

If desired, a product that stimulates root growth can be added to the water. The cuttings should then be placed in the soil at a slant with at least 2 or 3 buds above the soil surface but most of them should be in the soil. At the beginning of autumn, the height of the cuttings can be 0.6 m. The fruiting of such a plant begins already on the third year of growth.

Rooting of green cuttings is not as easy as the hardwood ones. It requires special conditions, e.g. a loose sterile earth mixture covered with a layer of washed sand, medication to stimulate the growth of roots, systematic water spraying to increase the air humidity etc.

Buckthorn berries propagation by grafts

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You intend to use a young shrub or a tree with very flexible branches.

During the spring you should choose a branch with good growth, bend it and place it in a previously prepared not very deep groove. After the branch is fixed, the groove should be filled with soil. Throughout the season, the branch should be provided with systematic watering, feeding, weeding and loosening the soil surface. The shoot should fully root the following spring, at which time it should be dug up, cut off from the parent bush and transplanted to a permanent place.

Buckthorn multiplication by shoots

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That way only a rootstock plant can be propagated.

Pick offshoots that are growing away from the parent plant (150 cm and beyond). As a rule, such offshoots already have a root system. Throughout the season, this offshoot should be high perch, as well as he is provided with regular feeding and watering. In spring it is carefully cut off from the mother bush and planted in a new location.

Reproducing sea buckthorn by splitting the bush

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First, dig up the sea buckthorn bush and cut off all old branches.

Then cut it into several pieces with secateurs, making sure that each piece has good roots and stems. The cut areas should be covered with crushed charcoal. The parts of the bush must then be planted in wells prepared in advance and then they must be cared for in the same way as seedlings.

Buckthorn multiplication by grafting

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This method of multiplication is the most difficult and laborious. This method of propagation is usually used to graft a male cuttings onto a female bush in order to avoid planting a new specimen.

It is also used to grow a varietal plant on a viable rootstock.

Grafting is recommended during the last days of April or the first days of May. A two-year old seedling of sea buckthorn, grown from a seed, is used as a rootstock. His trunk should be cut back to the growth of 15-20 mm above the root cervix, with the need to leave on the scion only 1 of the most powerful shoots of height 10 centimeters, the rest need to break off or cut out. The shoot that is left should be reared during the summer period, regularly pruning so that it becomes thicker and thicker but does not grow taller.

From the lower part of the shoot (up to 13-15 centimeters in height) all the growths should be removed. By the onset of the next spring, the shoot should become an even and smooth stem. By the onset of the third spring, the height of the plant should reach 0,5-0,6 m, and its diameter will be 0,5-0,9 cm. At this time, make an improved copulation to this rootstock cuttings of the required variety at a height of 8-10 centimeters from the root neck. The cuttings take rootstocks to the artificially created stem better in comparison with grafting to the rootstock.

It has been observed that cuttings cut from male specimens take root somewhat worse than from female specimens.

Diseases of sea buckthorn

Horticulturists used to believe that sea buckthorn had a very high resistance to diseases and therefore was practically disease-free. But when this crop gained popularity, it turned out that this plant, like most fruit trees, can fall ill with viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. The diseases with which sea buckthorn is most commonly affected will be described below.

Endomycosis

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Endomycosis is a fungal disease of a focal nature.

It appears in the first days of August and the berries are affected, becoming soft, flabby and covered with odorless gray mucus. With time, the shell of such fruits tears and the mucus leaks and gets infected on neighboring berries. Dew and rainy weather contribute to the fact that endomycosis begins to develop very quickly. Affected bush should be sprayed twice with copper chloride or Bordeaux mixture (1%). The first time is when the sea buckthorn is in full bloom and the second time in mid July.

Black cancer

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If round, dark spots appear on the surface of large branches then the bush is infected with black cancer. Over time, the bark located in these spots turns black, cracking and falling off, with the wood taking on a darker hue and rotting. Most often, the pathogens penetrate into the wounds left after pruning or through frostbite sites. Sick wood and bark should be removed from the affected areas of the plant, cleaning them to healthy tissue. This area should then be treated with copper sulfate and then with a mixture of cowpea and clay.

Blackfoot

Buckthorn seedlings can become infected with blackfoot, caused by soil fungi. An infected seedling has a thinning of the shoot at the point where the caulicle makes contact with the ground. Only very young seedlings are affected by this disease. To prevent it, it is recommended to use washed sand combined with sod soil to grow seedlings. It is also recommended to water seedlings once every few days, using a solution of light pink manganese potassium.

Affected plants need to be treated daily with a manganese solution.

Stegmina (scab)

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This fungal disease affects the young leaf plates, stems and berries. It often causes the stems and sometimes the whole bush to dry out. In mid-summer, glossy black round spots appear on the fruits, which gradually become larger. After that, mucous formations of yellow or pink appear in the gaps that appear on berries.

The berries turn black and dry out. Black swellings appear on the surface of current season stems, and velvety sores and spots of black color appear on leaf plates. If you look at an infested plant, it may appear to be splattered with black ink. For preventive purposes, sanitary pruning should be done every fall, and plant debris should be destroyed. The bush is then sprayed with a 1% Bordeaux mixture, but note that this must be done at least 3 weeks before the fruit harvest.

Gray and brown rot

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Brown or gray rot may develop on sea buckthorn in July in damp, rainy weather. If the bush is infested with brown rot, dark-colored spots will form on the fruit, while if it is gray, shriveling and wilting of the berries will occur. Affected plants should be cut down and destroyed. To prevent this, sea buckthorn should be properly watered and fed, and the soil surface should be loosened in a timely manner.

This crop can also be affected by fusariosis, verticillosis, alternariosis, fomosis, sea buckthorn swelling, branch ring necrosis and coryneum necrosis, mixed and heart-shaped trunk rot.

However, if you follow the rules of agronomic management of such a plant, it may not become diseased at all.

Pests of sea buckthorn

The following will describe those pests that most often settle on sea buckthorn and pose a serious danger to it.

Buckthorn moth

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The caterpillars of the buckthorn moth penetrate and gnaw out the inside of the buds during the swelling period. To kill such a pest, it is necessary to spray the bush with Carbophos solution during bud swelling.

Buckthorn fly

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The greatest danger to this crop is the buckthorn fly.

It can leave the horticulturist without a crop. The appearance of this pest is observed from mid to late June. The larvae of such a fly penetrate into fruits and gnaw out their pulp. As a result, berries become shriveled, darken and fall off. The affected bush should be sprayed in mid-July with a solution of Chlorophos.

Glory aphid

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Glory aphid is a sucking insect that sucks sap from young stems and leaves. The pests settle on the underside of the leaves, causing them to curl, turn yellow and fall off prematurely. If there are not too many pests, the plant can be sprayed with an infusion of onion husks or infusion of garlic, tobacco leaves with laundry soap. If the infestation is very strong the bush should be sprayed with an insecticide such as Carbophos solution (10%) during leaf opening.

Buckthorn gall mite

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A very small pest like the buckthorn gall mite feeds on plant sap by sucking it out of the young leaf plates, resulting in swelling, deforming and dying off.

This pest is treated in the same way as the aphids.

If the plant is not cared for correctly, it can be infested with other pests as well. But if you follow the crop's cultivation rules, sea buckthorn will always be strong and healthy.

How to care for sea buckthorn

Beautiful sea buckthorn species and varieties with descriptions

There are only 2 kinds of sea buckthorn: Sea buckthorn, naturally found in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, southern Xinjiang County in China, and Bhutan, and buckthorn, which grows throughout Europe.

Buckthorn is a tree which reaches a height of about 15 meters, with a trunk diameter of about 0.

3 meters. Its sharp, lanceolate leaves are about 8 centimeters long and up to 15 millimeters wide. The whitish leaves have a brownish-red veining. The fruit is a round, yellowish berry that can grow to 0.7 cm in length.

Buckthorn berries - For a description of this species, see the beginning of this article. Its varieties are widely cultivated in the mid-latitudes. Numerous varieties are divided into small-fruited and large-fruited, European and Siberian, nonsprouted and spiky, late-ripening, mid-ripening and early-ripening. Siberian varieties cannot be grown in Europe because mild winters with thaws are destructive for such plants. The European varieties, in turn, are not suitable for cultivation in Siberia because they are not sufficiently winter-hardy.

The most popular sea buckthorn varieties will be described below.

Early-ripening varieties

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  1. Burdock. This ultra-early variety is yielding and frost-resistant, but drought and excessive heat can be detrimental to the plant. The fragrant orange-colored fruits are egg-shaped.
  2. Brownberry.

    This variety is characterized by its productivity, disease resistance and medium frost resistance. The shrub is stout and strong, with thorns all over the stem. Its ovoid-conical fruits are fragrant and sour, light red in color, weighing about 1 gram. The variety is winter-hardy. The low, branched bush does not have a very lush crown.

    The sweet, fragrant fruits are tubular-round and red-orange in color, weighing about 1 gram.

  3. Ajurnaya. This seedless variety is high yielding and resistant to heat, frost and drought. The sour fruits have an elongated cylindrical shape and an orange-yellow color, weighing about 1 gram.
  4. Golden Cascade.

    A medium yielding seedless variety with a high resistance to diseases and pests. Fragrant, sweet-sour orange-colored fruits weigh about 1 gram.

Medium-ripening varieties

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  1. Zarevo. The variety is characterized by its productivity and resistance to frost, disease and pests. There are few small prickles on the outside of the stems.

    The punchy orange color fruits have a slightly sour taste.

  2. Favourite. This variety has a very high resistance to frost, disease and pests. It can be a shrub with many thorns or a medium sized tree. The fruits have a rich carrot color and weigh over 1 gram.

    The variety is characterized by high yield, winter-hardiness and resistance to diseases and pests. The low bush is slabaroskidy. Its medium to large, dark red fruits have an excellent flavor.

  3. Botanical. This soon-to-be industrial variety has resistance to frost, disease and pests.

    The bush is moderately spiky. Fragrant large fruits of oblong shape and saffron-orange color have a pleasant, slightly sour taste.

  4. Perchik. The variety is productive. The not very tall prickly bush has an umbrella-shaped crown.

    The sour fruits have an oval shape, orange color and pineapple smell.

Late maturing varieties have only sweeter fruits after frost and do not fall off for a long time. Varieties that are popular:

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  1. Elizabeth. This variety of Russian selection is among the best varieties with high yields. The small bushes have a miniature crown.

    Its large orange-golden fruits are barrel-shaped and have a sweet and sour flesh. This early-blooming variety has a consistent yield and high winter hardiness, but is susceptible to fungal diseases. Its orange-colored fruits are of medium size and have a sweet and sour taste. A spiky variety with stable yields. The color of the large fruits is straw-colored, the shape is ovoid-round, and the taste is slightly sour.

  2. Firletown. This deficient variety is resistant to frost and disease. The bush has a narrow, cone-shaped crown, similar in appearance to a young spruce. The greenish-lemon color small fruits have a sour taste.
  3. Velikan.

    A seedless variety that has stable yields and frost tolerance. Its large orange-colored and egg-shaped fruits have an excellent taste.

Observing properties of sea buckthorn: harm and benefit

Beneficial properties of sea buckthorn

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Berry like its branches as well as its leafy plates have medicinal properties. Sea buckthorn contains: oxalic, tartaric and malic organic acids, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, K, E, carotene and carotenoids, flavonoids, manganese, boron and iron, tannins, phytoncides, oleic and linoleic fatty acids.

The berries contain beta-sitosterol which has an anti-sclerotic effect, as well as serotonin which is very important for the normal functioning of the nervous system.

Decoction made from the fruit is used for duodenal and stomach ulcers. Compresses of fresh fruits help with burns, frostbite and pustules. Also these fruits are recommended for men over 40 years old because they help to increase potency.

The berries and leaves are able to cleanse the body of oxalic and uric acids. Sea buckthorn leaves are used to prepare an infusion, which is used in the treatment of rheumatism, gout and diabetes.

A decoction made from the branches and leaves of the plant is recommended for gastrointestinal disorders. In case of scurvy symptoms it is recommended to prepare tea from dried sea buckthorn leaves.

But the most valuable is sea buckthorn oil, which has a powerful bactericidal effect. It contains vitamin E, vitamin F, which regulates metabolic processes in the skin, sterols, trace elements and minerals silicon, silver, copper, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt. This oil is used both internally and externally.

It helps to increase the amount of protein in the liver, improve lipid metabolism, stimulate regeneration of damaged tissues. In chronic laryngitis and pharyngitis this oil is recommended to treat the mucous membrane of the mouth, and it is also used for inhalations. Also this oil is recommended by dermatologists to intensify hair growth that has fallen out due to some skin diseases.

Medications based on sea buckthorn oil can many times improve the body's tolerance of anticancer drugs, and in some cases it helps to increase their therapeutic effect. To improve the baby's immune system, it is necessary to mix milk with a few drops of sea buckthorn oil from one month of age.

Buckthorn. Useful properties, contraindications, folk medicine recipes

Contraindications

The sea buckthorn fruit contains a large amount of carotene, therefore a person with a weakened immune system may have an allergic reaction. Also in the fruit there is a high acid content, so they should not be eaten with liver disease, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, duodenal inflammation more so if the disease is in the acute stage. Also they should not be eaten by people with a tendency to diarrhea. Sea buckthorn increases the acidity of the urine, so it is not recommended to eat it with urolithiasis.

Also, people with individual intolerance should give it up.

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