From all members of the Walnut family, the black walnut is the tallest tree. It has an unusual appearance and versatility, which is why most gardeners will want to decorate their garden with it. However, in order for the plant to grow and develop normally, it needs special care.
Peculiarities of the black walnut
The black walnut, or American walnut, plant is a member of the Walnut genus of the Walnut family. It is a tree that can reach a height of about 30-40 meters.
In mid-latitudes, the height of such a plant usually does not exceed 18 meters, with a trunk that reaches about 50 cm in cross-section. On the surface of the dark bark there are many deep cracks. It takes its name from the spectacular black coloring of its fruit, bark and wood.
The black walnut has several characteristic features:
- has a spectacular spreading crown;
- its branches point downward;
- the bark is colored in a dark brown hue and cracks are placed throughout its surface;
- the structure of the dark brown wood is very strong;
- the edge of the oval leaf plates is serrated;
- in the springtime rather long greenish earrings are formed;
- the oval nuts are initially colored pale green, but when they mature, their coloration changes to dark.
Borne from North America, such a tall tree.
That is why it is commonly referred to as the "Canadian Walnut" or the "American Walnut". It is found in broadleaved forests and its range is considerable, extending from Massachusetts in the south to Florida and west to Minnesota and Texas.
This plant is found throughout Europe. However, it does not grow in Scandinavian countries because of the rather harsh cold climate there. Black walnut prefers to grow on river and lake shores, in the mountains and in deciduous forests.
The fact is that it needs moist soil.
In the territory of the Russian Federation such a tree, as a rule, can be seen only in botanical gardens. In nature it grows only in Stavropol and Krasnodar regions.
Black walnut, Black walnut, Juglans nigra.
Planning and care
Black walnut is remarkable because its leaves have phytoncidal properties.
Phytoncides are able to exterminate various bacteria in the air, thus purifying it. In order for such a spectacular tree to grow well, you should choose the most suitable place on your plot for it.
We should remember that if the air will have a high concentration of phytoncides, it will lead to the death not only of pathogenic, but also of beneficial bacteria for the human body. In this regard, if you decided to plant several seedlings at once, the distance between them should be at least 15-20 m.
Optimal conditions for growth
For Canadian walnut to grow and develop normally, the air temperature should not be less than 10 degrees.
However, mature plants are notable for their resistance to cold, and they are not harmed by air temperatures as low as minus 38 degrees.
The soil should be slightly alkaline or neutral. A tree growing in weakly acidic or acidic soil lags behind in its development and is not able to prepare properly for the coming winter.
The black walnut is noted for its moisture-loving nature. Quite often in Indiana, the root system of the plant is flooded.
Often it is under water for 4 weeks, but this does not harm the plant.
It is not recommended to choose areas near fruit trees for planting this crop. Also next to it will not be able to grow normally birch, and also the Solanaceae (tomatoes, potatoes and eggplants). The fact is that the leaves of black walnut releases a toxic substance - juglone, which has a detrimental effect on plants in close proximity to it. After some time, such proximity leads to the death of these plants.
However, there are trees that grow well next to Canadian walnut, such as maple, linden and hornbeam.
Planting black walnut
Before planting black walnut directly, you must do some soil preparation on the site. For spring planting, the soil should be prepared in the fall. Within 6 months the soil can accumulate the necessary amount of moisture. It is obligatory to fertilize, for this purpose, add compost or humus to the soil (3-4 kg per 1 m2).
When 1.5-2 weeks remain before planting the seedling, the soil should be poured into the prepared hole, which is mixed with 50 grams of potassium salt with 150 grams of superphosphate. Immediately before planting, the root system of the seedling is immersed for some time in a solution of a growth stimulating agent.
The size of the planting hole should correspond to the size of the root system. The surface of the planting circle of the planted plant should be systematically loosened and the tree itself should be dipped.
To prevent excessive moisture evaporation, the soil surface near the plant should be covered with a layer of mulch.
How to germinate and grow black walnut!
Care for the nut
How to ensure that the plant receives plenty of soil moisture in the root zone regularly during flowering and vegetation. From the second half of July, watering will be gradually reduced to help prepare the black walnut for winter. However, during fruit formation (from July to the last days of August), the soil should always be slightly moist.
Formative pruning is not necessary for the plant.
However, injured and withered branches should be trimmed in good time for hygiene purposes. It is recommended to prune the tree at the beginning of the spring period as soon as buds open, and the air temperature should not fall below minus 10 degrees.
Raising black walnut
The crop is propagated by seed, cuttings and clinging. The most popular is growing the tree from seed, with annual or biennial seedlings used for planting in the garden. It should be noted that annual seedlings are much faster to take root.
In the process of planting seedlings, they need to be covered with soil to 2/3 of the height.
When choosing seed propagation, it should be taken into account that nuts are covered with a high-strength shell. Therefore, the seeds need special preparation, otherwise the appearance of seedlings will have to wait a very long time. Pour warm water into a glass (20 to 23 degrees) and immerse the seed in it. Keep the seeds in the water for three days.
Do not forget to change the water regularly: in the morning and in the evening.
Furthermore, the nuts are sent to germination, for this they are buried in moistened sand or sawdust, with a deepening of 10-12 centimeters. The optimum temperature for germination is 18 to 24 degrees. Moisten the substrate regularly and after 15-20 days the first seedlings will show up.
Black walnut - seed propagation - stratification and planting of nuts
Diseases and pests
The American walnut is a very powerful plant that can withstand pests as well as various diseases.
However, such a tree can also become diseased. It most often suffers from bacteriosis. Signs of the disease:
- The shape of the leaves changes and black spots form on its surface;
- fruits become deformed.
The disease begins to develop in the root system, and rainy weather contributes to it. As a preventive measure, it is advisable to remove the foliage from the soil surface in time.
If the flowers are not yet affected by the disease, you can try to save the plant by spraying with a Bordeaux mixture.
Brown spot can also affect this plant. Dark-colored spots first appear on the leaves and later on the fruit. When the first symptoms of the disease are detected, treat the tree with a fungicide.
Application of black walnut
Black walnut is not only cultivated as an ornamental or fruit plant, it is also used to produce valuable wood.
- Color of heart varies from bright chocolate to brownish (dark stripes may be present);
- The wood may be different colors: purple, red or pale green;
- The fibers have distinctive pattern;
- green natural medium shine;
- The fibers are straight and may be uneven.
This wood is easy to work with. The material lends itself well to machining, excellent polishing and gluing.
Canadian walnut wood furniture has a special value. It is characterized by antimicrobial properties, has a spectacular appearance and is resistant to external influences.
The wood contains certain essential oils, glycosides and organic acids. That is why products made of it have reliable protection against pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
Wood, however, has a significant disadvantage - rather low strength. The wood starts to bend during sawing. However, it is ideal for the assembly of decorative complex pieces of furniture, as in this case, a high elasticity is welcome.
To make the furniture more durable, drying and storing boards according to certain rules. Such wood is used to make:
- gun butts;
- music instruments;
- decorative objects.
Besides industrial production, black walnut is used in pharmacology and medicine. Its extract is used to prepare medicines and tinctures.
Black Walnut || Useful properties and uses
Beneficial properties and contraindications
The fruits of black walnut can be eaten as a food and have a special taste.
The fat content of the kernels ranges from 55 to 66 percent. Therefore, such kernels are similar in nutritional value to English walnuts.
Such fruits are used as a food supplement. They contain fatty acids as well as vitamins of groups B, E, A, C and PP. Ten fruits contain as much iodine as the human body needs per day.
They also contain carotene and tannin.
Benefits of kernels:
- helps the body heal faster from infectious disease;
- helps strengthen the immune system;
- has anthelmintic effects;
- dilates blood vessels, brings pressure back to normal;
- activates brain activity;
- cures acne;
- tones the skin, reduces wrinkles.
Eat the kernels fresh or roast them a little to start with. Children can eat a maximum of 5 kernels and adults can eat 8 to 10. They are added to desserts and also used as a condiment for second and first courses.
Since the kernels contain a lot of fat, this product is high in calories. Therefore, it is not suitable for a person who is trying to get rid of excess weight.
People suffering from gastritis should not eat fried kernels. Nuts are considered to be a powerful allergen, this is something allergic people should pay attention to. If you eat a lot of black walnut kernels, it can lead to the development of an allergic reaction.
Black walnut cannot be eaten by children under five years old as well as by women during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
Black walnut destroys parasites at all stages of development. The medicinal properties of black walnut