The herbaceous fruit plant Musa banana is part of the Banana family. In nature, it can be found in Australia, Ecuador and Mexico and prefers to grow in regions with tropical climates.
Banana is native to the peninsula of Hindustan, Southeast Asia. The plant can reach a height of approximately 10 meters if grown in the most favorable conditions. The fruit of this plant is referred to as a berry.
In European countries, the banana is decorated with greenhouses, and they are also cultivated in greenhouses.
Growing such an unusual for indoor culture plant can also be a flower grower. With proper care, it can add about 100 cm in height during the year. Life expectancy of the home banana is small - about 5 years, and the maximum height - about 200 cm. The bush does not flower for the first time until it is three years old.
A cone-shaped inflorescence is formed at the top of the trunk. When fruiting ends, there is a death of the stem, which should be reanimated with shoots.
- Temperature. 26 to 30 degrees in warm seasons and 18 to 21 degrees in winter.
- Humidity of air.
Should be elevated (not less than 65 percent). Frequent humidification from a sprayer or the use of a household humidifier is recommended.
- Lighting. Plenty of bright light. Southwest, south and southeast oriented windows are best.
- Pouring. Moisten the soil mixture abundantly. In the warm season - once every 2-3 days, and in winter - once a week. A regular warm shower is necessary.
- Soil mixture.
You can buy a special soil mixture for banana, and also prepare it with your own hands, combining peat, sand, sod and leaf soil (1:1:1:2).
- Fertilizer. In spring-summer period, fertilize once a week, alternately using organic and universal mineral fertilizer in diluted form. During autumn and winter fertilizing is not carried out.
Every year in the springtime.
- Propagation. By seed, by lateral shoots and bush division.
- Care features. The plant needs a regular inflow of fresh air.
In summer in warm weather it can be moved outside, with a place that has reliable protection from draughts chosen for it.
How to grow bananas at home. Exotic fruit at home is REAL!
How to care for your banana at home
If you care for your banana at home properly and give it the right conditions, then you should have no problem growing it at home.
The bush only blooms once it has developed 16 or 17 wide and large leaves. This is usually after the plant is 3 years old.
The banana blossoms in mid-July. Its leaves are then collected at the top of the stem in an umbrella shape.
After the heart-shaped leaf forms at the very top, a large panicle-like inflorescence with many small pale green or cream-colored flowers emerges from the central part of the rosette. As the flowers gradually open up, the inflorescence grows longer and goes downward, but in natural conditions it can be up to 150 cm long. The shrub can bloom for 6-12 weeks.
With both opposite-sex and opposite-sex flowers occur. If the female flowers are pollinated, they will form bob-shaped fruits instead, which are arranged in a "banchu" (brush). After a while, the leaves are observed to droop downward. And after some more time, they fall off.
The domestic banana is a very heat-loving plant.
Therefore, special attention must be paid to the temperature regime, which should be optimal throughout the year. The room temperature can range from 26 to 30 degrees during the warm season and from 18 to 21 degrees during the winter months.
Since it is a tropical plant, it requires a high air humidity, which should be at least 65%. This humidity level is not easy to achieve in room conditions, especially in the wintertime when the air is over-dried by heaters. In this regard, in the warm season the bush is moistened with a sprayer regularly 3 or 4 times a day, and in winter this procedure is carried out 1 or 2 times a day.
The pot with the plant can also be placed in a deep tray filled with wet expanded clay. And you can also place an open container of water near the bush and if possible, use a household humidifier.
Banana needs plenty of bright light. The more ultraviolet light the bush receives, the better its growth and development will be. Because of this, experts recommend, be sure to choose the sunniest south, southeast or southwest oriented windows for such a plant.
If the banana does not receive enough light, it will lead to stunted growth, lack of flowering and fruiting. However, remember to shade the bush from the scorching rays of the sun on hot days, otherwise burns may appear on the foliage.
The domestic banana is a moisture-loving plant. Make sure the potting soil is slightly moist all the time. In the cold season, the bush is watered once, and in the warm season - about three times a week.
Water it with well-distilled water, the temperature of which should be slightly above room temperature.
Between watering, the plant is sometimes arranged a warm shower, to which it responds very well. Leave the wet bush in the bathtub for a while so that all the water can drain off.
However, throughout the banana's life, it will need to change the pot several times as it grows. In doing so, the smallest pot should be 2 liters and the largest should be 50 liters.
If your purchased seedling reaches about 0.65 m in height, then you can choose a container of 20 liters for its planting.
Overly large container should not be purchased for banana, because stagnation of moisture in the soil mixture can be observed in it, which leads to its acidification and root rot. Remember, however, that if the root system becomes crowded in the pot this can lead to poor bush development.
The bottom of the pot should definitely have drainage holes to help avoid stagnant liquid in the soil mixture.
Also remember, when planting or transplanting the banana, to place drainage material on the bottom of the pot, which should be at least 1/3 of the pot's height.
Fertile soil mixture that is air permeable and neutral in acidity is suitable for growing a home banana. Ready-made soil specifically for growing banana can be bought at a specialized store.
If you wish, you can make the soil mixture yourself, just combine sand, peat, leaf soil and sod soil (1:1:2:1). We recommend adding coco peat, Sphagnum and vermiculite to increase friability.
Fertilizer should be applied systematically once every 7 days during the growing season. Fertilization is done after watering, using a universal mineral fertilizer and organic fertilizer to be diluted in water. After fertilizing, the bush should be transferred to a shady place for 24 hours.
The domestic banana plant is characterized by rapid growth, so it needs regular transplanting, which is done annually in the springtime. While the plant is young, it should be transplanted once every six months.
You can tell when a shrub needs replanting by the following signs: roots sticking out on the surface of the earth mixture or sticking out of holes at the bottom of the pot.
A new container should be larger than the old one by 30-40 mm. At its bottom make a fairly thick drainage layer, for this you can use keramzit, pieces of brick or pebbles.
Transplanting the bush, be sure to deepen its base a little. This will encourage the adventitious roots to grow and increase the yield.
Remember that you must transplant the banana using the transfer method, which will prevent injury to the roots. If the bush is old and very large, it is not transplanted. Instead, systematically replace the top layer of substrate with fresh potting soil.
After transplanting or replacing the top layer of substrate, water the bush with plenty of water and place the pot on a tray filled with wet expanded clay. Don't forget to put some plastic bottle caps under the bottom of the container.
This will allow air to flow freely to the root system of the plant. After two days, carefully loosen the surface of the substrate. And after 21 days, the first feeding of the banana should be done.
Transplanting the indoor banana. How to separate offspring (babies) from banana?
Home banana does not need pruning.
However, to rejuvenate the bush, the old plant is cut back to the root. After a while, young stems will appear.
This tropical plant has no dormancy period. The bush needs warmth and high humidity at all times of the year. However, during winter months the banana plant needs time for a good rest: temperature is reduced to 20 degrees, watering frequency is reduced and fertilizers are put on hold.
If the domestic banana is kept in favorable conditions (high humidity, heat and bright light), then it can bear fruit. A bush grown from a sprout will be able to bear fruit in 1-2 years. A banana grown from seed will begin to bear fruit in about the fourth year of growth. To stimulate fruit formation, the plant should be timely fed.
Growing from seeds
Homemade banana seeds are covered with a very hard shell, so it is difficult for them to germinate.
The seeds need to be scarified to make them sprout faster. To begin with, they are immersed in water and left for several days. After that, treat the hard shell with an emery or a nail file.
Sow the seeds in a moist substratum and embed them only slightly. Above the container is covered with glass or film, and then it is placed in the heat (about 30 degrees).
The first seedlings will appear after about 10 weeks. Do not forget to systematically air the seeds and moisten if necessary. The stronger seedlings can be planted in a larger pot.
When transplanting, you can divide the bush. To do this, cut off the part of the adult rhizome with a knife and the scions that have formed.
Treat the cuts with crushed charcoal and plant the partition in a separate pot.
Repropagation by offshoots
It is quite easy to propagate such a plant by offshoots. To do this, from a fully formed rhizome, carefully cut off a fragment that has several leaf plates. Sprinkle the cut places with charcoal powder. Plant the sprout in a pot.
The most popular ways of banana propagation in room conditions are vegetative. The fact is that dividers and sprouts take root fairly quickly and begin to bear fruit after only 1-2 years.
If the home banana is not properly cared for, a number of problems may arise with it:
- Stopped growth. Too dark and the roots are cramped in the container. Will need to transplant to a larger pot and move the shrub to a better lighted location.
- The edges of the leaves are withered. Excessively low humidity. Increase the amount of moisture, sprinkle wet pebbles in the tray.
- Brownish-black spots on the foliage. Roots have rotted from stagnant liquid in the substrate.
Cut away the rotted roots, sprinkle the cut areas with crushed charcoal and change the substrate with fresh substrate.
- Dark discoloured spots on the leaves of young plants. Some banana varieties exhibit this peculiarity. The spots will disappear after a while.
- Drying out and dying off of the sprout.
This is a quite natural process that occurs at the very end of fruiting.
- The stem has developed a slimy rot. Stagnant moisture in the substrate or spraying the bush at a low room temperature. Cut back the affected parts of the plant, treat with fungicide, and keep the watering regime correct.
Spider mites, scales, and thrips may settle.
BANANE CARE AND Cultivation Mistakes. EXOTICS ON THE TABLE.
What bananas can be grown at home
Home bananas are quite rare to find in indoor cultivation. Through breeding, varieties designed for indoor cultivation have come into being.
Fruit bananas (whose fruits can be eaten)
As a rule, they are grown to produce a large number of fruits with high taste characteristics. Two popular varieties have been taken as the basis for obtaining such varieties: Banana pointed and Banana Balbisa. The best varieties:
Banana Cavendish Super Dwarf
The foliage of this low-grown plant is greenish and dense. The flowers are deep red. Gives a rich harvest.
Banana Cavendish dwarf
A low-growing plant. Large, broad leaves are painted a deep green hue. The color of the flowers is maroon.
Decorative-leaved and beautiful-flowering bananas
These banana varieties are grown for their spectacular large leaves and flowers. The fruit should not be eaten.
Their pulp contains many small hard seeds. Popular varieties:
Banana Chinese dwarf, Golden lotus (Musella lasiocarpa)
The bush is about 1 m high. It is decorated with large emerald leaves and a large inflorescence of golden hue.
Banana bloody (Musa sumatrana Zebrina)
The broad leaves are decorated with an unusual greenish maroon pattern. The small red fruits cannot be eaten.
Banana velvety (Musa velutina)
Greenish oval leaf plates have a scarlet border. The flowers are relatively large and have a deep pink coloration. The red fruits are conventionally edible.
Benefits of banana
The fruits of the domestic banana are edible and very tasty. They can be eaten raw and can also be used to prepare various dishes.
They contain such beneficial substances as: iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, organic acids, sucrose, as well as vitamins A, C, PP, E and B.
In alternative medicine, banana fruits are used to lower blood pressure and to increase hemoglobin levels. It also contains tryptophan, which helps improve mood.
To prepare anti-burn and anti-inflammatory drugs, various parts of the banana are used. It is also used in cosmetology.
Leaves and shoots are used for weaving ropes and fishing tackle. The rind is used to make a nutritious infusion for feeding houseplants.
When does banana fruit? BANANA GROWING CONDITIONS. HOW LONG DOES A DWARF BANANA LIVE? ЭКЗОТИКА