Astilbe Flower: Planting And Care In The Open Ground, Varieties With Photos And Names

Astilbe is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the stonefly family. According to various data, this genus includes 18-40 species. The plant was named by Lord Hamilton, a Scottish botanist, "a" meaning "without" and "stilbe" meaning "shine". He was referring to the fact that the plant has non-shiny, matte leaf plates. The plant is native to North America, East Asia, and the Japanese Islands.

Astilba prefers to grow on the banks of streams, in broad-leaved forests, as well as in those places where in the summer time there is a high humidity. It came to Europe from Japan in the late 18th or early 19th centuries. It was introduced by von Siebold and Carl Thunberg, who were hunters of curious plants. Since that time it has gained great popularity as an ideal plant for shade gardens.

Peculiarities of astilba

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

This plant is a rhizomatous plant.

Before winter, the part of the astilbe that is above the ground dies off. The height of upright shoots depends on species and cultivar and can vary from 8 to 200 centimeters. The long-petioled leaflets are found as simple as two or three times pinnate, with a serrated edge. Their color is greenish-red or dark green. The woody rhizome may be dense or loose (depending on species).

New buds appear at the top of the rhizome each year, with the lower part gradually dying off. Annual vertical growth is about 3-5 centimeters, therefore in autumn time it is recommended to cover the part of the rhizome which is exposed with fertile soil.

Little openwork florets are gathered in apical inflorescences. They can be colored red, pink, white, lilac, and purple. Flowering can begin in June through August.

The form of the inflorescences is found rhombic, paniculate, as well as pyramidal. Especially effective are those species that have drooping inflorescences. The fruit is represented by a capsule. All species are divided according to the time of flowering into:

  • early - last days of June, first - July;
  • intermediate - July;
  • late - August.

Astilba: cultivation, care, propagation

Astilba varieties with photos and names

There are only 10 to 12 species of astilba cultivated.

But many hybrid varieties of this plant have come into existence thanks to breeders. Today there are about 200 varieties. The most popular are Arens (Arendsii Hybrida), Japanese hybrids (Japonica Hybrida), Chinese astilbe (Astilbe Chinensis) and its varieties, and Astilbe simplicifolia.

Astilbe Arendsa

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

Counts 40 species, which came into being through selection of the main species, Astilbe David, with other species. Sprawling, powerful bushes can reach a meter in height.

Their shape can be pyramidal or spherical, the leaf plates are dark green. The final inflorescences may be lilac, pink, white or red. Flowering lasts longer than with other species from July to August for 30-40 days. It has been cultivated since 1907. G.

Arends created the best of its varieties. The most popular are Astilba Gloria, Diamante, Weiss Gloria, Ruby, Glute and others. The bush of Diamant can grow to a height of 0.9 meters, while Weiss Gloria, Amethyst and Ruby are 0.8 meters tall.

The inflorescences of Weiss Gloria and Gloria are diamond-shaped, while those of Gluta, Diamante and Ruby are panicles.

Astilbe Chinese

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

The bush can vary in height from 100 to 110 centimeters. Root leaf plates have long petioles and are large, while the small, glossy, openwork stem leaves have short petioles. The dense inflorescences are 30 to 35 centimeters long. The color of the small florets is usually lilac, but white and pink can be found.

It has been cultivated since 1859. There are some low-growing forms (var. pumila hort.), 15-25 centimeters high, as well as forms with cone-shaped inflorescences of var. Taquetii.

Such plants feel well in well-lit areas. The varieties with the greatest effect are such as: Astilbe chinensis taquetii "Purpurlanze" - amazing lilac color, Astilbe chinensis "Vision in Pink" - pink color, Astilbe chinensis (Pumila Hybrida) "Vision in Red" - dark purple.

Astilbe Japanese

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

The compact bushes are not over 0.8 meters tall. The glossy leaflets are most often ornamental.

The white or pink flowers are in paniculate inflorescences. Flowering begins earlier than in other species and even the withered inflorescences will be a beautiful garden decoration and will last until late fall. Cultivated since 1837. The creator of the first varieties is H. Arends.

Modern varieties are resistant to cold, and they also take root beautifully. The most popular are: Deutschland (Astilbe japonica Deutschland) - white color, Rheinland (Astilbe japonica Rheinland) - with beautiful pink flowers, Europe (Astilbe japonica Europe) - elegant plant with light lilac flowers, Montgomery (Astilbe japonica Montgomery) - its fluffy paniculate inflorescences are colored in maroon or deep red.

Astilbe simple-leaved

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

Hostilbe hybrids (Hybrida) and Thunberg hybrids (Thunbergii Hybrida) react extremely negatively to low humidity as well as heat. The height of the bushes can vary from 20 to 50 centimeters. Very beautiful inflorescences give the plant an airy appearance.

The most spectacular varieties are as follows: Praecox Alba, with white, loose inflorescences; Bronze Elegans, so called because of its pale pink inflorescences; Straussenfeder, 0.9m tall and coral inflorescences; Professor van der Wielen, with white inflorescences and a Thunberg hybrid.

Growing astilbe from seed

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

The astilbe can be propagated by seeds as well as by dividing the bush or separating the rhizome with a bud. Florists with little experience most often resort to vegetative propagation methods. However, only seed propagation allows the creation of new varieties.

Seeds are sown in March. For planting, you will need a wide container, which should reach 15 centimeters in height. It is filled with a mixture that includes sand and peat taken in equal parts. A centimeter-thick layer of snow is poured on top of the soil. In case there is no snow on the street, it can be found in the freezer compartment of your refrigerator.

The seeds are spread directly on the surface of the snow, which, as it melts, draws them deep into the substrate. Next, the seeds will need to undergo stratification. To do this, when the snow melts completely, the container should be placed in a bag, which should be transparent, and then put on the shelf of the refrigerator. There the container should be there until the seedlings appear (about 3 weeks). The container is then removed to a well-lit place with a temperature of 18 to 22 degrees.

Water the plants must be very carefully, otherwise they will die. So, the water should be poured only under the root, or you can inject it with a syringe directly into the substrate. After the plants have 2 or 3 true leaf plates, they should be planted in separate pots.

Early purchase plants. How to plant astilbe.

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Planting in the open ground

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

Growing astilbe is easy enough, the main thing is to take care of it properly. Plant it outdoors in May or June. A suitable area should be on the north side of the building, and it should be shaded by bushes or trees. Consider that some of the varieties can grow in sunny locations and will flower abundantly but not for long. It's perfect if you can put astilbe in the vicinity of a pool or fountain.

Very suitable loamy soil and groundwater should be sufficiently close to the soil surface. The suitable pH is 5.5-6.5. Astilba is recommended to plant together with hostas.

The reason is that hostas prevent the soil from drying out quickly and from getting too hot on hot days.

Before planting, it is necessary to prepare the site. To do this, dig over the soil and remove all weeds along with their roots. Then decomposed manure, compost or decomposed peat (2 buckets of fertilizer per 1 square meter) is applied to the soil. The depth and width of the planting hole varies from 20 to 30 centimeters, with a distance of 30 centimeters between the bushes.

In each hole is poured ½ cup of wood ash, as well as 1 large spoonful of mineral fertilizer. After that, the holes should be well watered. When planting, place the plant so that its growth bud is buried at least 4-5 centimeters into the soil. Pour the necessary amount of soil into the hole and tamp it down. Then cover the soil with a layer of mulch (peat or humus), 3 to 5 cm thick.

Garden care

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

You should remember that astilbe has a special feature, namely that its root gradually grows upwards, with its lower part eventually dying off. This means that after some time the bush will not be able to feed, so it is so important to dip it in time. Make sure that the soil does not dry out. Such a plant needs regular watering. However, mulching will be able to help make watering more infrequent and will get rid of weeds, as well as frequent loosening of the soil surface, and also will not allow the root system to overheat.

The abundance of watering varies from medium to high, and it directly depends on the species, as well as the variety of shrubs. But it should be remembered that when the formation of inflorescences takes place, the bush should be watered systematically and abundantly. In a dry period, watering is done twice a day, more precisely in the morning and in the evening.

Feeding

The flower can be grown in one place from 5 to 7 years. But when properly and well cared for and fertilized, astilbe can last up to 20 years without replanting.

A rough plan for fertilizing astilbe:

  1. In the spring time, nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be applied to the soil. For this purpose, humus is brought in during the ditching.
  2. In mid-June, the plant needs potassium fertilizer. For this purpose, 500 ml of a solution consisting of a bucket of water and 2 big spoons of potassium nitrate are taken per 1 bush.
  3. When flowering ends, a phosphorus fertilizer is required.

    Take 20 grams of superphosphate per 1 bush.

When the plant is fertilized, the soil surface should be loosened and mulched.

Pests

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names
Pennyflower

This introduced plant has the main pests left in the places where it originated. In the middle latitudes, it can be harmed by gall and strawberry nematodes, as well as the drooling warbler. At the same time, the froth nematode prefers to settle in the leaf axils.

Over time, drool-like foamy secretions form in them, with cicada larvae inside them. Leaf laminae begin to shrivel and yellow spots appear on them. The infested shrub wilts partially or completely. Confidor, Hornwort, Carbophos or Actara can be used to eliminate this pest.

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names
Semmer Nematode

Semmer Nematode settles on leaf blades, buds and flowers and results in deformed leaves and brown or yellow necrotic spots.

Bush growth becomes slower.

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names
Gallus nematode

The gall nematode settles on the plant roots and small galls (excrescences) appear on their surface and nematodes are placed inside them. In the second term of vegetation, the galls are already very well distinguishable. The growth and flowering of such bushes is considerably impaired, and in some cases they die. Carefully inspect the bushes and those with obvious signs of the disease should be dug up and destroyed.

It is important to do timely weeding during the first growing season. The plant's growing root system will choke out the weeds itself in the second vegetation period. Treat your Astilbe with Fytoverm.

After flowering

Astilbe flower: planting and care in the open ground, varieties with photos and names

After flowering, it is advisable to leave the withered inflorescences on the bush because they will still decorate your garden with their spectacular appearance for a long time. Before wintering, however, astilbe shoots should be cut so that they are level with the surface of the ground.

Cover the area with a layer of mulch, and this should definitely be done if the shrubs have recently been replanted in the process of dividing the rhizomes. You can rejuvenate the plant by dividing it, but note that the older the shrub, the more difficult it is to divide its one-rooted root. Dividing is recommended at the start of spring and each one should have a growth bud. The astilbe transplanted in this way, starts to bloom in a year. Such bushes must be covered with mulch for the winter and if transplanted in autumn, it is advisable to cover them with lapnuts to protect them from autumn, winter and spring frosts.

Astilbe - Cultivation, Care, Diseases

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