The flowering plant Aralia is a member of the Araliaceae family. In natural conditions it can be found in subtropical and tropical areas, and partially in places with temperate climate on the territory of Australia, Asia, Central and North America. This genus contains approximately 70 species, but only the Manchurian Aralia spp. is cultivated by gardeners as a medicinal, ornamental and melliferous plant.
Peculiarities of the aralia species
Aralia Manchurian or tall is a tree or shrub with rapid growth and its height can vary from 1.
5 to 12 meters. The straight trunk reaches up to 0.2 m in cross-section. Radial system of roots is placed in the ground at a depth of 10 to 25 centimeters. Interesting is the fact that at a distance of 2 to 5 m from the trunk, the beginning of strong branching of the roots is observed, while they sharply curve and go down to a depth of about 0.
6 m. Both on the surface of leaf petioles and on the trunk there are a huge number of sharp spines. The compound bipinnate leaves include 2 to 4 pairs of lobes, and they consist of 5 to 9 pairs of leaflets. Large apical inflorescences reach 0.45 m across and consist of umbels composed of small white or cream-colored flowers.
Fruit is a black-blue berry, reaching 0.3-0.5 cm in cross-section and containing 3-5 pips. The first flowering of the aralia tree, which grows in the wild, is observed only in the 5th year of growth. It blooms in July and August and the fruits ripen in September and October.
Aralia manchurica or tall, Aralia mangurica = Aralia elata
Growing Aralia in the garden
Potting Aralia in the ground
Potting Aralia in your garden can be done in early spring before the buds swell on the trees or in the fall when the leaves have ended. A well-moistened area with sunshine only up to 11-12 hours is perfect for such a plant. Before you start planting, you should take care that the site is completely cleared of pests such as May beetles, honeybeetles, etc., the fact that they can severely injure the root system of the tree. The plot is subjected to overwork or plowing to the depth of the bayonet of the spade, then it is left alone for 7 days, so that the soil had time to air out well.
After that, it is harrowed and a mixture consisting of decomposed manure and peat manure compost (1:1) is placed evenly on the surface, then it is recultivated.
The depth of the planting hole should be 0.35-0.4 m, while in the cross-section it should reach 0.7-0.
8 m. The bottom of the pit should be covered with nutrient soil from the top layer, mixed with fertilizer, with a layer thickness of 10 to 15 centimeters. After that, a two-year-old sapling is placed in the middle of the pit, when its root system will be neatly straightened, all the voids should be filled with soil. After planting, the planting circle is tamped, and then the plant is well watered. If several saplings are planted at once, leave a distance of 2-3 m between them, and the width of the rows should be 3-3.
Garden care for aralia
Growing aralia in your garden plot is quite simple. It will require the most attention in the first year after planting in the open ground. When the bush will be planted, the surface of its starter circle should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat mulch), and its thickness should be about 20 mm. Thanks to this, the plant will quickly take root and improve its growth, so the next year the growth of its above-ground part will be 25 to 30 centimeters.
Watering is done only when there is a long dry spell and you pour 10 to 20 liters of water under a plant depending on its age. During the growing season, the surface of the rootstalk should be loosened several times, remembering to do it very carefully, because the root system of aralia growing near the trunk is very close to the soil surface. Weeding should be done at the same time as loosening, and all unnecessary growth should be cut out.
Every year at the beginning of intensive growth and during the formation of buds, it is recommended to feed the plant with a nutrient solution consisting of water (8 parts) and slurry or cowpea (1 part). Also aralia responds well to fertilization with Nitroammophoska, its solution is prepared according to the instructions enclosed with the product.
Such fertilizer is recommended to apply under the plant alternately with organic fertilizer. In the spring time before the sap starts, it is necessary to prune the tree for sanitary purposes, for this purpose all dry, injured, diseased or frost-affected branches and stems as well as those growing deep into the crown are removed.
To reproduce this plant, gardeners use the seed method as well as vegetative (by root cuttings). Seeds take a very long time to germinate, as a rule, the seedlings do not appear until the third year after planting, and one should not forget to water the bed systematically, otherwise the seeds may not germinate at all. Such tight germination is due to the fact that the germs of the seeds are underdeveloped, as in the seeds of ginseng, at first they mature in the soil, and only after a while their growth begins.
It is much easier to propagate such a plant by root scions, formed on those roots, located superficially. Wait until the scion is about 25 centimeters in height, its separation from the parent bush is done in the first days of October. By this time it should have formed its own root system. After the scion is removed from the soil, it is planted in a permanent place (planting rules are described in detail above).
Pests and diseases of Aralia
This plant is highly resistant to fungal diseases.
Problems may arise only if there is systematic stagnation of water in the root system.
Pests that live underground, namely the larvae of the May beetles, wireworms, and moths, are very dangerous to the Aralia plant. In this regard, it is so important to try to remove these pests from the site before planting. Slugs can also harm such a tree, they can be picked up manually or use traps, for this purpose digging a jar of glass up to the neck in the ground, and 1/3 of it should be filled with beer or fermented compote. The pests will crawl into the flavor and get into the jar from which they cannot get out anymore.
Species and varieties of Aralia with pictures and names
Besides Manchurian Aralia, or high, gardeners grow other types of this plant.
Aralia prickly (Aralia spinosa)
Native to eastern North America, this species prefers to grow on riverbanks in nature. This tree is about 15 meters tall, growing very vigorously at first, but becoming slower thereafter. The fruiting of such a plant begins at 5 or 6 years of age. This species is distinguished from Manchurian Aralia by its higher frost-resistance.
Schmidt's Aralia (Aralia schmidtiana) or cordate Aralia (Aralia cordata)
In natural conditions this species is found in forest clearings, glades and mountain slopes of the Far East. It is a perennial herbaceous plant, about two meters tall, it possesses a fragrant fleshy rhizome. The long, pinnate, tri- or bipinnatipartite leaf laminae reach about half a meter in length. The apical panicles consist of umbrella-like inflorescences that in turn consist of whitish-yellow or whitish-green flowers.
Gardeners cultivate not only the Manchurian Aralia species but also its ornamental forms that have several types:
- Subinermisthis plant has very few or no thorns.
- Pyramidalis - the plant is pyramidal in shape and has small leaf plates.
- Canescens - it has a dense coating of pale yellow pile on the underside of the leaf plates.
- Aureo-variegata - the spiky aralia is about 3 meters tall, with a crown reaching 2.5 meters in cross-section. The leaf plate is composed of a large number of small leaflets, while they are young, there are spots on their surface, and on the edge runs intermittent stripe of light color.
The leaflets are about 100 centimeters long and vary in width from 70 to 80 centimeters at the bottom of the shrub. In autumn, the foliage turns a pale red color, with dark blue fruits looking very striking against their background.
- VariegataThis slow-growing plant is about three meters tall, with its trunk surface covered with large spines. The large, openwork, pinnate, whitish-silvery leaf lamellae reach about 100 cm in length.
The properties of aralia: harm and benefits
Beneficial properties of aralia
The roots of high aralia contain essential oil, starch, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, triterpene saponins, mineral compounds, resins, microelements, glycosides, and also A, B and C aralozoides.
The stems and leaves contain organic acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, triterpenoids and essential oil. Its seeds contain linoleic and octadecenoic fatty acids.
Aralia preparations are used for diabetics, asthenia after the flu, impotence, physical and mental fatigue. The medications have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, and they are more effective than ginseng remedies. In alternative medicine, this plant has been used for a long time, it is used to treat skin diseases that are associated with metabolic processes, kidney diseases, schizophrenia, hypotension, atherosclerosis and diabetes.
It should be borne in mind that remedies made on the basis of aralia have a cardiological effect, but they do not have a strong effect on blood pressure. For medicinal purposes, they use a tincture of aralia, which is made from the roots, and Sparal tablets, which have a tonic effect. Also, a decoction of the roots is prepared and used to treat diabetes, enuresis, colds, inflammations of the mouth and gastrointestinal diseases.
Aralia root decoction
To prepare the root decoction, 150 milligrams of hot water and 20 grams of ground Aralia roots are taken. The mixture should be boiled over low heat with a lid on tightly closed container for 30 minutes, after which it should be cooled for 10 minutes at room temperature.
Stored in the refrigerator strained infusion should not exceed 3 days. To prepare the tincture, 40 grams of crushed roots should be mixed with one tbsp. alcohol (70%). The vessel is closed tightly and left for half a month to insist in a cool and dark place. In the finished product is amber in color, specific aroma and pleasant taste.
Drink it 3 times a day with meals, 35 drops for 4 weeks. The Aralia Manchurian herb is suitable for allergic reactions, but if you have a predisposition to hypertension, then take 10 drops twice a day for 21 days. Aralia Manchurian price, buy
Aralia Manchurian should be drunk only on the basis of a qualified specialist and strictly under his supervision. They are strictly prohibited for people suffering from hypertension, epilepsy, as well as sleep disorders and nervous system. Take such remedies in the evening is not recommended.
One must be very careful because any of the parts of this plant contain toxins, when poisoned with them, bleeding, respiratory disorders, and in some cases loss of consciousness are observed..