This type of fruit tree is a member of the Apple tree genus of the Pink family. This species is widespread and is cultivated in many garden plots as well as on an industrial scale to produce delicious fruits. About apples and apples created a large number of stories, songs, legends and fairy tales, as well as other works of oral folklore. For example, the apple of discord was one of the reasons for the Trojan War; the first people were banned from Paradise on the Earth because of the apple of knowledge; the law of universal gravitation was created after an apple fell on Newton's head..
. There are a great number of other examples. It will be very difficult to find a person who doesn't like delicious and fragrant apples, this fruit is used to prepare appetizing jams, drinks and a variety of dishes. Apples contain many useful substances and vitamins. The apple tree has been cultivated by man since a very long time and in many hundreds of years it has not lost its popularity.
Features of apple
The apple tree is a tree that can vary in height from 2.5 to 15 meters. Its crown is spreading. It bears two types of branches: the growing branches, which are elongated, and the fruiting branches, which are shortened, where the flower buds form. Wild species have thorns.
Petiolate leaf blades may be glabrous or have pubescence on the underside. The flowers vary in color from variety to variety and may be pale pink, white or crimson. The flowers are not very dense inflorescences, which are semi-ozont-like and corymbiform. Flowering lasts about half a month and begins in April or May. The flowers are cross-pollinated.
The fruit, called an apple, is formed from the lower ovary. The plant is long-lived; in the wild it can live for about 300 years, in the garden for up to 100 years. It normally does not bear fruit before it is four years old. However, there have been cases where fruit-bearing began in the year of planting or at the age of 11 years. Duration of productive period of apple-tree is 40-50 years.
This plant is frost-resistant, up to minus 42 degrees Celsius. This crop is also an excellent honey bearer.
How to care for apple tree seedlings - a gardener with 20 years of experience
Planning the apple tree in the open ground
When to plant
Planning the apple tree in the open ground can be done in spring as well as in the fall. But before you start planting, you need to choose the most suitable place for such a plant. A suitable site should be open and without powerful draughts, there should be no buildings or other trees near it.
Specialists advise, avoid planting a young tree together with old ones, because the latter will take away nutrients from the apple tree, and also block it from the sunlight. The soil must necessarily be fertile, not very acidic, as otherwise you will have to quench it, using lime. Its composition should contain nitrogen, which the plant needs for normal growth and fruiting.
Equally important is to choose a good seedling for planting. It is purchased before planting in the open ground, and it is better to choose a plant with an open system of roots, which can be well inspected.
Seedlings in containers or pots are not recommended. The fact is that they can be sold in this way for several seasons, and their system of roots has long ago filled the container and strongly intertwined, as well as in it in such conditions can get and various pests. In some cases, unscrupulous sellers offer to buy an apple tree, allegedly grown in a container, but actually dug up recently, from which the extra roots were cut off with a shovel, and then squeezed it into this cramped container. Whether a seedling will be able to take root after such a thing is a big question. Therefore, it is better to buy a plant with an open root system, whose buds are not yet swollen.
The main criterion in choosing an apple tree is the condition of its roots. If the apple tree is dwarf, its root system looks like a sponge, consisting of thin and small roots. If the species is tall, on the other hand, it has several strong roots arranged vertically. The roots on the cut should always be white, if they have a different color, it indicates the presence of rot or other disease. You should also have a good look at the above-ground part of the plant.
If the sapling is one year old, it should have only one trunk-trunk, the height of which can vary from 100 to 200 cm and it should not have any side branches. If a two-year-old dwarf apple tree seedling is purchased, it should have 3 to 5 skeletal branches, while a taller one should have 2 or 3. The purchased seedling should be prepared for planting on the plot. To do this, all traumatized and diseased roots should be removed, and then the wounds and cuts should be treated with crushed charcoal. Then the root system is gently straightened out.
Pay attention to the buds, they must be in a dormant state.
Apple tree planting in autumn
The pit for planting this crop should be prepared well in advance. For spring planting, the pit is prepared in the fall. If planting is planned for autumn, the pit should be prepared at least 4 weeks before planting day, during this time the soil in it settles well enough. In autumn, planting apple trees is done after the leaf fall is over.
At this time, the part of the plant above the ground is dormant, but there is intense root growth. Try not to disturb the plant too much. The size of the pit should be 0.5x0.5m, with its depth depending entirely on how long the root system of the planted tree is.
In the middle of the pit should be set fairly long stake, which will rise above the surface of the site at about 150 cm. The prepared root system of the plant should be placed in a hole, which is carefully filled with nutritious black soil. It should be taken into account that after planting, the root neck of the apple tree should be at the same level with the surface of the plot. After the soil in the rooting circle is well compacted, the seedling will need abundant watering. Then it is tied to a support.
When the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the root circle may settle, in which case, more soil is poured into it. The soil during autumn planting should not be mixed with any fertilizer, as this can cause the buds to awaken before winter, which may cause the seedling to freeze. When the weather gets stably cold, you can sprinkle around the plant if you like with 0.6m clearance from the trunk. During the snow melt in the springtime, the melt water will dissolve the fertilizer and take it into the ground directly to the root system of the plant.
Planting rules for apple, pear, cherry, and plum seedlings.
A large number of gardeners prefer to plant apple trees in the springtime. Prepare a planting pit of the same size as you did in the fall. In it, you need to pour a small amount of fertile soil, which is combined with 500 ml of wood ash. Then, 10 liters of water is poured into the hole and everything is thoroughly mixed.
In the resulting putty, the root system of the plant should be immersed, which is well straightened out. After that, the pit is filled with fertile soil almost to the top. Then another 10 liters of water is poured under the plant. When the liquid has been absorbed, the pit should be completely filled with soil, making sure that its surface is at the same level as the surface of the plot. Make sure that the root neck is at the same level as the surface of the plot.
The very last bit of potting soil should be combined with any compound fertiliser, e.g. "Perfect Universal".
Taking care of an apple tree seedling in its first year
How to care for it in spring
To raise an apple tree you need time and patience. It does not matter if you planted the apple tree in autumn or spring, the care of the young tree starts in the first spring.
If everything is done correctly, it will grow strong and healthy, and the mature apple tree will be able to cope with a variety of problems on its own. It is very important not only to plant this culture correctly, but also to pay special attention to care in the first year of growth. On how properly everything will be done, depends on the yield and health of the apple tree for many years. When the sapling will be planted in the open ground, it is necessary to shorten its trunk by 2 or 3 buds, this will help to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots. If the planted plant already has skeletal branches, remember that they should be shorter than the central shoot.
If these branches are longer than the central shoot, they will need to be shortened. The newly planted apple tree will need systematic watering for the first 5 or 6 weeks. To do this, you need to pour 10 liters of water under the sapling once every 7 days. But if it rains a lot in the spring you will not need to water the tree. After 1.
5 months you should water the plant once every 15-20 days. But if there is a strong heat, you will need to increase the amount of watering to twice every 7 days. Also increase the amount of water used to water the seedling, now a time in the nursery circle will need to pour 20-30 liters of water. The surface of the nursery circle must necessarily be covered with a layer of mulch (biohumus, decomposed manure, compost or chicken manure). A layer of straw or dried grass with a thickness of 50 mm should be placed on top of the mulch.
This covering helps to create suitable living conditions for earthworms. These worms help to loosen and fertilize the soil to a depth where the roots of the plant are fed. As a result, the soil will become light and saturated with nutrients. In addition, the mulch layer prevents weeds from actively growing, which greatly reduces the number of weeding.
All flowers that appear during the first two years should be removed, because they greatly weaken the apple tree.
In May the plant will need 2 foliar feedings, for this purpose a solution of Effekton or sodium humate is used (1 big spoon of any of these means is taken for 1 bucket of water). A couple of liters of solution per plantlet.
What must be done with an apple tree in spring
How to care for it in summer
After a watering regime is established, the apple tree does not need any special care until autumn arrives. It will need to be watered systematically all summer and pests will need to be controlled if necessary. If pests have settled on the plant, you can not use various harmful chemicals, they can be replaced by birds, which should be attracted to the garden plot.
To do this, you need to make bird houses and bird feeders on the tree, in this case the birds will know that there is food on the apple tree. Flown in birds will destroy harmful insects settled on the tree. While the tree is small, pests can be picked up by hand and you will not need any treatment at all.
In hot days, you can use the sprinkling method to water the plant. Watering is done in the evening, as the drops that hit the leaves in sunlight can leave burns on them.
In order to improve the access of air to the root system of the tree, it is necessary to make several punctures around it in different places, with 0.6 m away from the trunk. The depth of the holes in the ground can vary from 0,3 to 0,4 m.
A couple more foliar feeding is carried out in June, for this purpose also use a solution of Effekton or sodium humate. Sprinkle 2 cups of wood ash on the surface of the tree bed in July just before watering.
How to take care of in autumn
In the autumn the tree should be dipped to a height of 15 to 20 centimeters. The surface of the root zone should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat, humus or compost). The trunk of a young apple tree should be whitened, using a solution of chalk. If there are hares in the region where the crop is grown, which can damage the bark of young plants, the trunks should be wrapped with a reed or lapnik to protect them. What fertilizer is used for apple tree fertilization in autumn? It is not necessary to fertilize the plant in the first year, because the organic fertilizer in the mulch layer will be quite sufficient.
Apple Tree Care
Apple Tree Treatments
If pests infest a mature apple tree, it will be virtually impossible to strip them all down. For this reason, preventive chemical treatments for diseases and pests must be applied regularly. This treatment is carried out in the spring, before the sap starts to move, and the air temperature in the street should be not less than 5 degrees. Mix 1 bucket of water and 0.7 kg of urea to prepare the solution.
This solution should be well treated all the plant, as well as the surface of the root zone. As a result, all pests and pathogens, which settle in the tree bark or in the upper layer of soil for winter, will die. If necessary, urea can be replaced by a solution of iron sulfate (5%), Nitrafen (3%) or copper sulfate (3%). But note that the treatment with these solutions can be made only if the buds have not yet begun to swell, otherwise they can get burned. The second time the tree is sprayed against pests (mites, aphids and caterpillars) after it blossoms, for this use a ten percent solution of Aktellik, Karbofos or other insecticidal agent.
To protect the plant from fungal diseases, it is sprayed with a product containing copper. The next preventive treatment is done in autumn when all the fruit is harvested but the leaves have not yet started to fall, using urea solution (5%).
Spring orchard pest and disease treatment / When and how to treat trees in spring
Feeding apple trees
Feeding both young and adult plants. The first feeding of a mature apple tree during the last days of April. Organics are used for this, for example 500 g of urea and 5 or 6 buckets of humus spread on the surface of the root zone as mulch.
The second time the tree is fertilized before flowering, in case there is hot weather, the fertilizer is used in liquid form. For example, 1 kg of superphosphate, 0.8 kg of potassium sulfate and 1 bottle of concentrated liquid fertilizer Effekton should be poured into a two-hundred liter barrel. All well mixed, this solution should infuse for 7 days. Under one apple tree, 4-5 buckets of the solution should be poured.
Before feeding, the plant should be watered, and then the liquid fertilizer should be applied in a circle, with 0.6 m away from the trunk. When the plant is fertilized, it should be watered again. The third time you should feed the apple tree during the fruit ripening. Also in a barrel with water of 200 liters should be poured 1 kg of Nitrophoska and 20 grams of sodium humate, all well mixed.
This nutrient solution should water the apple tree, with the soil must be pre-moistened, do not forget to step back from the trunk 0,6 m. For one plant, 30 liters of solution are taken. The fourth time the tree is fertilized in the autumn after the harvest. Since it usually rains a lot in autumn, it is necessary to feed the apple tree with dry fertilizers, for this purpose, 0.3 kg of sulfuric acid potassium and superphosphate are poured under each plant.
In case there will be very little rain in autumn, fertilizers should be applied in liquid form in wet soil.
It is also recommended to fertilize mature plants and foliar method. As fertilizer in this case a solution of urea (a couple of big spoons per 1 bucket of water) is used. Spray the trunk, leaves and skeletal branches with this fertilizer. The first time foliar feeding is carried out before the apple tree blossoms, and two more, when it blossoms, with an interval of 3 weeks.
This nutrient mixture both feeds the tree and exterminates all pests and pathogens on the surface of the bark, foliage and the root zone. Also often for foliar feeding use Kemira, as this product contains microelements that the crop needs, such as manganese, boron, molybdenum, zinc, copper, magnesium, etc. The plant should be fertilized twice at an interval of half a month during the fruit ripening period.
Wintering apple trees
For the first 5 years the trunks of young trees should be necessarily painted with a chalk solution in autumn time. Also trunks should be wrapped in reeds or lapnik, which will protect them from various rodents, which are very hungry in winter time.
After 5 years, the trunks of apple trees and their skeletal branches should be whitewashed with a lime solution, which includes 1 bucket of water, 1 kg of clay, 3 kg of freshly-quenched lime, half a kilogram of copper vitriol and 100 grams of carpenter's glue, which should be preheated. If there is a possibility that the mature plant may also suffer from rodents, its bark should also be strapped with lapnik or reeds. Once the bark of the apple tree is very hard, it will no longer need protection from mice, hares and rats. Regardless of the age of the plant, it should be dipped to a height of 15 to 20 centimeters, with a layer of mulch (manure) covering the surface of the root zone. Do not forget that the mulch and the trunk should not be allowed to touch.
During the winter period trample soil or snow in the tree stand as often as possible.
Trimming the apple tree
When to prune
Trimming is a must in the apple tree growing season. If the crown of the tree is properly shaped, it will promote earlier fruiting, the crops will be abundant, the frost-resistance and the life span of the plant will increase significantly. Pruning apple trees should be done in autumn and spring. During the summer months, pruning is not carried out, because at this time of the year in this culture there is an intensive sap movement.
The first trimming should be done before the sap starts to flow in spring and in the first year after planting.
How to trim an apple tree
Shorter young branches can be cut with a secateurs and thicker branches with a saw. Only very sharp pruning tools should be used otherwise the wood and bark will be crushed and the healing time of the wound will be longer. Branch cuts should be disinfected with a solution of lime and copper sulfate (10:1), and then they are smeared with a garden varnish. Young branches should only be cut with garden varnish after 24 hours, and dry and old branches can be treated immediately.
When a plant has just been planted, the main stem should be shortened and after that it should not be trimmed for two or three years, only the injured and withered stems should be cut out. When the tree has grown the right number of branches, they need to be trimmed to about 2/3 of their length. Examine the branches that are left, making sure that the buds on them do not point into the inside of the crown. Only branches that have buds on the outside should remain; cut all other branches out, otherwise they make the crown too dense.
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Trimming the apple tree in spring
In the springtime, you must get busy preparing the apple tree for the coming growing season. At this time, formative and sanitary pruning is done. To do this, the crown should be thinned so that it is better exposed to the sun and saturated with air. Also cut back diseased or diseased stems. Trim the tips of branches which have been damaged by frost during the winter.
It is advisable to trim apple trees in spring because the wounds heal more quickly at this time. Branchlets which are parallel to the growing branch should also be removed. Also all branches which have become intertwined or are touching each other should be cut out. If there is a need to remove one branch and leave the other, the older branch should be cut out. Knots at the base of branches or on the trunk should be cut out, cracked and injured branches should also be removed.
A five-year-old tree should have a complete crown. If properly shaped at this age, the apple tree should have ½ of its branches mature, and it can already start to bear fruit. At this age, the apple tree will not need propping, but only if the crown has been properly shaped.
Trimming the apple tree in autumn
In August, this tree still has quite active sap movement, but in the autumn months you can already start pruning it, but first make sure that in the near future there will definitely not be strong frosts. At this time of year, you need to shorten those stems that have grown during the summer.
Those plants that are more than 5 years old will need medium pruning, which will stimulate intensive fruiting. For this purpose, the powerful stems should be shortened by 1/3 of the length. If the annual growth has been relatively weak, the tree will need strong pruning. If the growth is strong, the length of branches will increase to 0.7-1 m during the season, with medium growth - to 0.
3-0.7 m, and if the growth is weak - less than 0.3 m. Also in the autumn you should cut out all excessively weak, withered, injured stems as well as those which are growing inwards into the crown or away from the trunk or skeletal branch at an acute angle. The whole branch should be cut out as follows: Firstly, it should be cut to the bud which is located first to the trunk and then the stump should be removed with a fine-toothed saw, the cut should be made strictly from the base to the top, then it should be smeared with garden varnish.
It is recommended to cut the apple tree on a cloudy, dry and windless day. Experienced gardeners advise you to consult the lunar calendar when choosing the right day to prune your tree. There you will find useful information about what day, what kind of work you should do in the garden and more.
Tree can be grown from seed, but this method of propagation is mostly used by breeders trying to get a new variety of plant. Gardeners prefer to propagate the crop using vegetative methods, such as grafts, cuttings or grafting.
Apple multiplication by cuttings
Basically, root cuttings are used to produce seedlings that will later be used as rootstock. If the apple tree is a rootstock, then the seedlings grown from that type of cuttings can also be rootstock varieties. If a grafted tree is used to obtain cuttings, the seedling grown will be from the tree that was used as a rootstock. Roots for cuttings are harvested in the spring time before the buds swell, or at the very end of the growing season. Root cuttings harvested in the spring time should be cut into sections of 18-20 centimeters in length.
Prepare a furrow and plant cuttings in them, keeping between them a distance of 0.3 m. The cut in the soil should be sunk to 20-30 mm. The surface of the plot should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus) with a thickness of 50 millimeters. The distance between the rows should be approximately 100 cm.
Cuttings should be provided with systematic watering. By autumn, they will be strong seedlings and can be planted permanently if necessary.
Garden head - Growing apple trees from cuttings
Reproducing apple trees by grafts
Reproducing this crop by grafts is the most productive method. It is not realistic to bury a branch of a mature plant, so the branches can be rooted upright in the air. Procedure:
- Select strong branches on the apple tree that have strong growth.
- From the top of the branch, measure 10 cm, then make several circular oblique cuts or remove a circular strip of bark, which should be 30 mm wide.
- The damaged area should be treated with a root-stimulating treatment (e.g. Kornevin).
- To keep the damaged area moist at all times, it should be wrapped in moist moss and polyethylene film on top.
This film should be fixed above and below the injured and wrapped area.
- During the summer period, roots should emerge from the cambia. In the autumn, a branch should be separated from the branch with secateurs and planted in a trench prepared in advance. Such a plant needs to be covered for the winter.
Grafting apple trees
The method of grafting, a cultivated apple tree eye on the rootstock, is used to propagate this plant.
Using a very sharp knife, make a T-shaped incision on the scion a little above the rootstock. Expose the wood by carefully unscrewing the edges of the cut bark. A bud should be cut from the variety cuttings, taking the bark around it, a thin layer of wood, and a petiole of about 15 mm in length should be left. This bud should be inserted into the cut on the rootstock. Then press the bark against the bud as firmly as possible and wrap it tightly with a moistened cloth or sponge, leaving the bud itself and the petiole exposed.
After about half a month you should see how the bud has taken root. If everything was done correctly, the bud will be fresh and green in color. If grafted in the spring, only 1 of 10 buds will take root, but if grafted in the fall, 8 of 10 will take root. It is therefore advisable to graft in the autumn. Choose a sunny and windless day for this procedure, noting that it should only be done in the morning or evening.
How to graft fruit trees. THE SIMPLE AND ACTIVE PROCESS. MASTER CLASS
Apple Tree Diseases
Crops like pear and apple trees have the same diseases. However, if treatment is delayed too long, the disease can spread to quince and also to cherry, plum or cherry trees. The best prevention from all diseases is proper care and compliance with all the rules of agrotechnics of the culture.
Inspect the tree regularly, and if you notice any unusual changes, you should try to find out what's wrong with it or what it suffers from. Apple trees grown in the orchard can get diseases such as: apple tree proliferation (witch's broom), bitter and fruit rot, milky gloss, mosaic disease, mosaic ringworm, fly-sucking, powdery mildew, true mulberry, common canker, black cancer, branch dieback, scab, blight, blubbery viral spot, rubbery mildew, rust, flattened twigs, glassy fruit, citosporosis, black spot. Each of these diseases has its own characteristic signs. For example, some of them can lead to the destruction of wood and bark, causing the apple tree to start drying out, and another one damages the leaf plates, which leads to their yellowing and flying off, etc. Some diseases can cause all the unripe fruits to fall off.
Most of the diseases are fungal and can easily be treated with fungicides such as Bordeaux mixture, Karbofos, Nitrafen etc. If the tree is infected with a viral disease, it is recommended to uproot and destroy it, so that the virus does not spread further, because no effective drug has yet been found for this disease. It is also quite difficult to treat apple trees that have been affected by mycoplasma-like organisms. Experienced gardeners are sure that it is better to try not to let the apple tree get sick than to spend your energy on its treatment later. Timely treatments carried out for prevention will help protect the plant from diseases (more about preventive treatments is described above).
Why apple trees wither Black cancer of the apple tree. Garden World Website
A large number of all kinds of pests can settle on an apple tree, which can also move to other garden crops. It is important to know that pests such as: hawthorn moth, brown fruit mite, hawthorn moth; apple, rowan, fruit, fruit, fruit stripe and upper-sided fruit moth; apple blossom moth, eastern and apple fruit moths, pear sawfly and pipeflower, oakleaf silkworm, cormorant, western gypsy bark beetle, winter moth; green apple, plantain, red-gallon and blood aphids; goosefoot, ringed and gypsy silkworms, apple mite, minnie moth, apple and common pear broom moth; currant, fruit and underbush moths; apple moth moth, mottled moth, blue-headed moth, apple mottled moth, apple glassworm, apple sawfly. These pests prefer to settle on trees weakened by improper care, as well as in cases where the gardener forgets to treat apple trees in time. For all crops grown in the garden to be healthy and strong, they need to be surrounded by attention and care, and you should know and follow all the rules of agrotechnics of crops.
It should be taken into account that the timely preventive treatments are one of these rules. If everything is done correctly and in time, your trees may never encounter such a problem as pests.
Apple varieties with pictures and descriptions
The domestic apple tree has a very large variety of varieties, according to various sources from 25000 to 35000 varieties. But today, breeders are still working hard to breed new varieties that are better than the old ones. To make it easier for you to choose the right variety for your garden, you should take a closer look at the following brief classification of apple varieties.
Remember, however, that you have to choose a plant with a view to the fact that it will live in your garden for decades to come and produce delicious fruits that will please not only you and your children, but also your grandchildren.
All apple varieties are divided by the time of consumption into autumn, summer and winter varieties. Summer varieties are divided into summer and early summer, fall varieties into early fall, fall, and late fall, while winter varieties are divided into early winter, winter, and late winter. Summer varieties are characterized by the fact that their fruits are very early maturing, but they can not be stored for a long time. If the winter varieties are given optimal storage conditions, they can last until spring.
It has been noticed that one variety cultivated in different conditions can differ significantly, for example, if it is grown in the Crimea, it will be summer, and in the Moscow region - winter.
Experienced gardeners try to grow several apple trees on their plot, with one variety to be winter, the second - autumn, and the third - early summer. Also, when selecting varieties of apple trees, it should be taken into account that they should pollinate each other. For example, if an autumn variety is planted next to a winter variety, cross-pollination will be possible because their flowering periods will overlap. If a winter and a summer variety are planted next to each other, in most cases there will be no cross-pollination between them, as they flower at different times.
Also, when choosing a suitable variety for the garden, you should take into account the size of your plot. If it is not very large, large apple trees cannot fit there; in this case, it is better to choose a compact plant, e.g. a dwarf shrub or column-shaped tree.
Colonoid apple trees
Colonoid apple trees of Moscow selection differ in that they have no side branches.
Such trees grow vertically upwards in a single trunk, and their height can vary from 250 to 300 cm. The trunk is strongly adorned with fruiting formations such as ringlets, twigs and spears. An important advantage of these varieties is that they bear fruit relatively early; sometimes the first fruits are produced in the year of planting, but they do not bear a large crop until the second or third year. Since this plant does not have a lush large crown, care for it is greatly simplified, for example, the procedure of pruning such an apple tree is very easy and fast, as well as treatment, foliar feeding, as well as the collection of fruits. However, such varieties have a significant disadvantage - some individual specimens give a poor harvest or do not bear fruit at all, but this is usually due to the fact that the plant did not receive the necessary care.
The Vasyugan and Dialogue are considered the best early summer varieties of colony-shaped apple trees, Malyukha, Medok and President are the most popular autumn varieties, and Moscow Necklace and Currency are the most popular winter varieties.
Dwarf apple trees
Dwarf apple trees are those grafted onto a dwarf rootstock. In countries where apple trees are cultivated on an industrial scale, strong trees with a spreading crown have not been grown for a very long time because they need a lot of space. The main advantage of dwarf apple varieties is that they are very compact and therefore a large number of fruits can be harvested per unit area. Dwarf apple trees bear fruit in two years after planting in the open ground, while strong-growing varieties give their first fruits only in 5-7 years.
As this plant is not very tall, it will be easy to look after, and there is no need to harvest the fruit. In addition, the root system available in these varieties allows the planting of such trees even in areas where groundwater is not high. However, it should be taken into account that dwarf varieties bear fruit intensively only for 20-30 years, while strong-growing apple trees have active fruit-bearing for 35-40 years. However, if you count the number of apple trees per unit area of a garden plot, the strong-growing varieties will produce fewer fruits during their whole life in comparison with dwarf varieties. The following apple tree varieties are most popular:
- summer ones - Moscow Grushovka, Summer Stripe, Mantet;
- autumn ones - Orlovskoe Stripe, Uralskoe Nalivnoe, Spartak;
- winter ones - Orenburgskoe Red and Kutuzovets.
Apple tree varieties for the suburbs
If the region has a warm climate with relatively mild winters, cultivating an apple tree will not give the gardener much trouble. What is the difference in the care of apple trees in the middle latitudes, and what varieties are better to grow in the Moscow region, where winters are not so warm? In this case, it is worth agreeing with the statement of I. V. Michurin, who said that it is the variety that decides the success of the case. Varieties suitable for cultivation in Moscow suburbs:
- Autumn varieties: high-yielding Medunitsa, frost-resistant Candy and Canadian varieties - dwarf Mantet and Melba apple tree;
- Autumn varieties: Autumn Stripe, Cinnamon Stripe, Cinnamon New, Zhigulevskoe;
- Winter: Antonovka Ordinary, Bogatyr, Zvezdochka, Peppin Saffron, Moscow Winter, Studenkoe.
Early varieties of apple trees
Early varieties include early summer and summer varieties. The most popular varieties are:
- Papirovka. A plant that has a medium height and a round-oval crown. Beginning to bear fruit in the 4th or 5th year of growth. The sweet-sour, yellowish fruits ripen in mid-August.
Fruits can be stored for about half a month. The tree has medium frost resistance and resistance to pests and diseases.
- Melba. The height of the plant is medium and the crown shape is broadly oval. Fruits in 5 or 6 years.
Fruiting occurs during the last days of August. The medium-sized conically-rounded fruits are greenish-white and blush, covering most of the surface of the apple. The flesh is sweet and sour. The variety is moderately frost-resistant, easily affected by scab.
- White Bulk.
This medium-high tree has a pyramidal crown at a young age and a rounded crown at an older age. It bears fruit every year, starting in the second or third year, but only when grafted on dwarf rootstock. Sweet-sour apples are yellow-green in color. The frost resistance is medium, susceptible to scab.
Also popular are such varieties as Borovinka, Grushovka Moscowskaya, Kitayka Golden, Bellefler Kitayka, Konfetnoe, Dream, Super Prekos, Mironchik, Early Sweet, etc.
Medium apple varieties
Middle-mature varieties are early autumn, autumn and late autumn ones. The most popular varieties are:
- Anise White. Strong-growing tree has a broadly pyramidal crown. Does not bear fruit until the 6th or 7th year of growth, but does not bear fruit every year. The sweet-sour apples are green with a cherry blush and waxy coating.
They ripen in the first weeks of fall. Fruits can be stored until the first few weeks of winter. The variety is resistant to drought and cold, but it is susceptible to black cancer.
- Korichne Novoe. Tall plant has a lush, rounded crown.
It enters fruiting in the 5th-7th year of growth, fruiting not annually. The yellow-green fruits have a striped blush. Their ripening is observed in the first days of September, and they can last until January. This variety is resistant to scab and frost.
- Saffron Saratov.
Medium sized tree with rounded or broadly pyramidal crown. Fruiting begins on the 5th-6th year. Ripening of greenish-yellow fruits with red stripes is observed in the middle of September. This hardy variety is resistant to powdery mildew and scab.
The following varieties are also quite popular: Ural Bulk, Uralets, September, Tambov, Riga Golubok, Autumn Stripe, Sverdlovsk Beauty, Orlovskaya Garlanda, Korichoe Stripe, Zhigulevskoe, Baltika, Bessemianka, Michurinskaya, Anise Sverdlovskii and Anise Stripe.
Late varieties of apple trees
Late-ripening varieties include early winter, winter and late winter varieties. The most popular varieties are:
- Start. The medium-sized tree has a rounded crown. This variety is resistant to cold and scab. It ripens in mid-September.
The oblong fruits are green in color and have red speckles and stripes on the surface. The fruits can last until mid-February.
- Moscow Winter. The tall tree has a lush, sprawling crown of rounded shape. There are fuzzy purple streaks on the surface of the greenish apples.
Ripening of the apples is observed in the last days of September, they can last until April. The variety is resistant to scab and frost.
- Lobo. A medium-sized plant with a sparse, rounded crown. This variety has high and consistent yields.
Its large fruits are green-yellow in color and have a crimson blush. The flesh is sweet and sour. This tree has an average frost resistance, and it is susceptible to powdery mildew and scab.
Also very popular are such varieties as: Martovskoe, Vityaz, Antonovka Ordinary, Aport, Bezhin Lug, Bogatyr, Bratchud, Veteran, Cherry, Zvezdochka, Imrus, Amazing, Dwarf, Kutuzovets, Moscow Red, Moscow Late, Orlik, Olympic, Freshness, Pepin Orlovsky, Northern Sinap, etc.
Choosing an apple tree. The best apple tree varieties: Melba, Mantet, and others.